Next Article in Journal
Occurrence and Characterization of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Contaminated Medicinal Herbs
Next Article in Special Issue
An Inducible Cre-lox System to Analyze the Role of LLO in Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Reducing Competition of Pepsin in Aflatoxin Adsorption by Modifying a Smectite with Organic Nutrients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Validation of Predicted Virulence Factors in Listeria monocytogenes Identified Using Comparative Genomics
Open AccessArticle

Large-Scale Comparison of Toxin and Antitoxins in Listeria monocytogenes

1
CENSA National Center for Animal and Plant Health, San José de las Lajas Municipality 32700, Mayabeque, Cuba
2
SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Department of Biology, UniFr University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
4
Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
5
USB University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010029
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Virulence Factors of Listeria monocytogenes)
Toxin–antitoxin systems (TASs) are widely distributed in prokaryotes and encode pairs of genes involved in many bacterial biological processes and mechanisms, including pathogenesis. The TASs have not been extensively studied in Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), a pathogenic bacterium of the Firmicutes phylum causing infections in animals and humans. Using our recently published TASmania database, we focused on the known and new putative TASs in 352 Listeria monocytogenes genomes and identified the putative core gene TASs (cgTASs) with the Pasteur BIGSdb-Lm database and, by complementarity, the putative accessory gene TAS (acTASs). We combined the cgTASs with those of an additional 227 L. monocytogenes isolates from our previous studies containing metadata information. We discovered that the differences in 14 cgTAS alleles are sufficient to separate the four main lineages of Listeria monocytogenes. Analyzing these differences in more details, we uncovered potentially co-evolving residues in some pairs of proteins in cgTASs, probably essential for protein–protein interactions within the TAS complex.
Keywords: toxin–antitoxin systems; Listeria monocytogenes; co-evolution toxin–antitoxin systems; Listeria monocytogenes; co-evolution
MDPI and ACS Style

Agüero, J.A.; Akarsu, H.; Aguilar-Bultet, L.; Oevermann, A.; Falquet, L. Large-Scale Comparison of Toxin and Antitoxins in Listeria monocytogenes. Toxins 2020, 12, 29.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop