Next Article in Journal
Large-Scale Comparison of Toxin and Antitoxins in Listeria monocytogenes
Previous Article in Journal
Calcium-Induced Activity and Folding of a Repeat in Toxin Lipase from Antarctic Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain AMS8
Open AccessArticle

Reducing Competition of Pepsin in Aflatoxin Adsorption by Modifying a Smectite with Organic Nutrients

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas AM University, College Station, TX 77845, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 28;
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Carcinogenic aflatoxins can be inactivated by smectites (e.g., montmorillonite) through adsorption and degradation. Proteins in gastric fluids can reduce smectite’s adsorption capacity for aflatoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of smectites modified with organic nutrients in restricting the influence of proteins on aflatoxin adsorption. Arginine, histidine, choline, lysine, and vitamin B1 were selected to occupy part of the interlayer space of montmorillonite to achieve a smectite structure more selective for aflatoxin adsorption, but not for the large protein molecules. The unmodified montmorillonite had a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.2 mol/kg in the presence of pepsin. The vitamin B1-montmorillonite showed significant improvements in the aflatoxin affinity constant from 0.065 to 0.201 μ M 1 and the aflatoxin adsorption to 0.56 mol/kg. Choline-montmorillonite and histidine-montmorillonite showed a moderate increase in AfB1 adsorption. Arginine-montmorillonite and lysine-montmorillonite showed a slight increase in the adsorption capacity, but did not improve the affinity constant. The XRD results indicated that pepsin could still access the interlayer of nutrient-montmorillonite complexes. The intercalation of organic nutrients into the interlayer space of montmorillonite improved the AfB1 adsorption by restricting the adsorption of pepsin. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; adsorption; nutrient-montmorillonite aflatoxin; adsorption; nutrient-montmorillonite
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Barrientos Velazquez, A.L.; Deng, Y. Reducing Competition of Pepsin in Aflatoxin Adsorption by Modifying a Smectite with Organic Nutrients. Toxins 2020, 12, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop