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A Complete Survey of Glycoalkaloids Using LC-FTICR-MS and IRMPD in a Commercial Variety and a Local Landrace of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and their Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities

1
Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza (PZ), Italy
2
School of Agricultural, Forest, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza (PZ), Italy
3
Spinoff Accademico BioActiPlant, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza (PZ), Italy
4
Department of Geography, Environmental Management & Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2092, South Africa
5
Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures, University of Basilicata, Via San Rocco, 75100 Matera, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040230
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology)
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Abstract

Eggplant contains glycoalkaloids (GAs), a class of nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites of great structural variety that may have both adverse and beneficial biological effects. In this study, we performed a complete survey of GAs and their malonylated form, in two genotypes of eggplants: A commercial cultivated type, Mirabella (Mir), with purple peel and bitter taste and a local landrace, named Melanzana Bianca di Senise (Sen), characterized by white peel with purple strip and a typical sweet aroma. Besides the analysis of their morphological traits, nineteen glycoalkaloids were tentatively identified in eggplant berry extracts based upon LC-ESI-FTICR-MS analysis using retention times, elution orders, high-resolution mass spectra, as well as high-resolution fragmentation by IRMPD. The relative signal intensities (i.e., ion counts) of the GAs identified in Mir and Sen pulp extracts showed as solamargine, and its isomers are the most abundant. In addition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. Pulp tissue was found to be more active in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase enzyme than peel showing an inhibitory effect higher than 20% for Mir pulp. The identification of new malonylated GAs in eggplant is proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Solanum melongena L.; malonylated form; glycoalkaloids; secondary metabolites; solasonine; solamargine; malonyl-solamargine; acetylcholinesterase; antioxidant Solanum melongena L.; malonylated form; glycoalkaloids; secondary metabolites; solasonine; solamargine; malonyl-solamargine; acetylcholinesterase; antioxidant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lelario, F.; De Maria, S.; Rivelli, A.R.; Russo, D.; Milella, L.; Bufo, S.A.; Scrano, L. A Complete Survey of Glycoalkaloids Using LC-FTICR-MS and IRMPD in a Commercial Variety and a Local Landrace of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and their Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities. Toxins 2019, 11, 230.

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