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Open AccessArticle

Chemical Composition, Phytotoxic, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils of Dracocephalum integrifolium

1
CAS Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Urumqi 830011, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection, College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100598
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 13 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic Research for the Potential Use of Plant Toxins)
The present investigation studied the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Dracocephalum integrifolium Bunge growing in three different localities in northwest China and evaluated the phytotoxic, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils as well as their major constituents, i.e., sabinene and eucalyptol. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 21–24 compounds in the essential oils, representing 94.17–97.71% of the entire oils. Monoterpenes were the most abundant substances, accounting for 85.30–93.61% of the oils; among them, sabinene (7.35–14.0%) and eucalyptol (53.56–76.11%) were dominant in all three oils, which occupied 67.56–83.46% of the total oils. In general, phytotoxic bioassays indicated that the IC50 values of the oils and their major constituents were below 2 μL/mL (1.739–1.886 mg/mL) against Amaranthus retroflexus and Poa annua. Disc diffusion method demonstrated that the oils and their major constituents possessed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, with MIC values ranging from 5–40 μL/mL (4.347–37.712 mg/mL). The oils, sabinene and eucalyptol also exhibited significant pesticidal activity, with the mortality rates of Aphis pomi reaching 100% after exposing to 10 μL oil/petri dish (8.694–9.428 mg/petri dish) for 24 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical composition, phytotoxic, antimicrobial and insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from D. integrifolium; it is noteworthy to mention that this is also the first report on the phytotoxicity of one of the major constituents, sabinene. Our results imply that D. integrifolium oils and sabinene have the potential value of being further exploited as natural pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dracocephalum integrifolium Bunge; essential oil; sabinene; phytotoxic activity; antimicrobial activity; insecticidal activity Dracocephalum integrifolium Bunge; essential oil; sabinene; phytotoxic activity; antimicrobial activity; insecticidal activity
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Zhou, S.; Wei, C.; Zhang, C.; Han, C.; Kuchkarova, N.; Shao, H. Chemical Composition, Phytotoxic, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils of Dracocephalum integrifolium. Toxins 2019, 11, 598.

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