Next Article in Journal
Transcriptomic Characterization of the South American Freshwater Stingray Potamotrygon motoro Venom Apparatus
Next Article in Special Issue
Lactobacillus bulgaricus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus Suppresses NF-κB Signaling Pathway and Protects against AFB1-Induced Hepatitis: A Novel Potential Preventive Strategy for Aflatoxicosis?
Previous Article in Journal
Pharmacological Targeting of Pore-Forming Toxins as Adjunctive Therapy for Invasive Bacterial Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chestnut Drying Is Critical in Determining Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination
 
 
Article

Occurrence and Levels of Aflatoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Potential Effects on Fish in Nyeri, Kenya

1
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536, Egerton 20115, Kenya
2
Department of Food Safety and Infectious Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 8146, Oslo 0454, Norway
3
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053, Kangemi 00625, Kenya
4
Toxinology Research Group, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Ullevålsveien 68, Pb 750 Sentrum, Oslo 0106, Norway
5
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053, Kangemi 00625, Kenya
6
Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 8146, Oslo 0454, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120543
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites that contaminate foods and feeds, causing adverse health effects in humans and animals. This study determined the occurrence of aflatoxins in fish feeds and their potential effects on fish. Eighty-one fish feeds were sampled from 70 farms and 8 feed manufacturing plants in Nyeri, Kenya for aflatoxin analysis using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fish were sampled from 12 farms for gross and microscopic pathological examination. Eighty-four percent of feeds sampled tested positive for aflatoxins, ranging from 1.8 to 39.7 µg/kg with a mean of 7.0 ± 8.3 µg/kg and the median of 3.6 µg/kg. Fifteen feeds (18.5%) had aflatoxins above the maximum allowable level in Kenya of 10 µg/kg. Homemade and tilapia feeds had significantly higher aflatoxin levels than commercial and trout feeds. Feeds containing maize bran and fish meal had significantly higher aflatoxin levels than those without these ingredients. Five trout farms (41.7%) had fish with swollen abdomens, and enlarged livers with white or yellow nodules, which microscopically had large dark basophilic hepatic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei in irregular cords. In conclusion, aflatoxin contamination of fish feeds is prevalent in Nyeri, and may be the cause of adverse health effects in fish in this region. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; fish feed; Nyeri; Kenya; mycotoxins; ELISA aflatoxins; fish feed; Nyeri; Kenya; mycotoxins; ELISA
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Mwihia, E.W.; Mbuthia, P.G.; Eriksen, G.S.; Gathumbi, J.K.; Maina, J.G.; Mutoloki, S.; Waruiru, R.M.; Mulei, I.R.; Lyche, J.L. Occurrence and Levels of Aflatoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Potential Effects on Fish in Nyeri, Kenya. Toxins 2018, 10, 543. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120543

AMA Style

Mwihia EW, Mbuthia PG, Eriksen GS, Gathumbi JK, Maina JG, Mutoloki S, Waruiru RM, Mulei IR, Lyche JL. Occurrence and Levels of Aflatoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Potential Effects on Fish in Nyeri, Kenya. Toxins. 2018; 10(12):543. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120543

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mwihia, Evalyn Wanjiru, Paul Gichohi Mbuthia, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, James K. Gathumbi, Joyce G. Maina, Stephen Mutoloki, Robert Maina Waruiru, Isaac Rumpel Mulei, and Jan Ludvig Lyche. 2018. "Occurrence and Levels of Aflatoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Potential Effects on Fish in Nyeri, Kenya" Toxins 10, no. 12: 543. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120543

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop