Next Article in Journal
Acute Toxicity of the Recombinant and Native Phα1β Toxin: New Analgesic from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom
Next Article in Special Issue
Occurrence and Levels of Aflatoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Potential Effects on Fish in Nyeri, Kenya
Previous Article in Journal
Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3251 Growth, Oxidative Status, and Aflatoxins Production Ability In Vitro under Different Illumination Regimes
 
 
Article

Chestnut Drying Is Critical in Determining Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination

1
DISAFA—Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali ed Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
2
Centro di Competenza per l’Innovazione in Campo Agro-ambientale (AGROINNOVA), Università degli Studi di Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120530
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
Chestnut drying is used to prevent postharvest losses and microorganism contamination during storage. Several studies reported the contamination by aflatoxins (AFs) produced by Aspergillus spp. in chestnuts. The effect of drying temperatures (from 30 to 50 °C) was evaluated on the growth of A. flavus and the production of aflatoxins in chestnuts. The influence of the treatment on the proximate composition, the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of chestnuts was considered. Fungal colonization was observed on the nuts dried at 30, 35, and 40 °C; the incidence was lower at 40 °C. The highest concentrations of AFB1 and AFB2 were produced at 40 °C. No aflatoxins were detected at 45 or 50 °C. At 40 °C A. flavus was under suboptimal conditions for growth (aw 0.78), but the fungus was able to synthesize aflatoxins. As the temperatures applied increased, the total phenol content increased, while the antioxidant activity decreased. A drying treatment at 45 °C for seven days (aw 0.64) could be a promising method to effectively control both the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi and the production of aflatoxins. This study provides preliminary data useful to improve the current drying conditions used in chestnut mills, to reduce both fungal growth and aflatoxin production. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; antioxidant activity; Castanea sativa; composition; temperature; total phenol content aflatoxins; antioxidant activity; Castanea sativa; composition; temperature; total phenol content
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Prencipe, S.; Siciliano, I.; Gatti, C.; Gullino, M.L.; Garibaldi, A.; Spadaro, D. Chestnut Drying Is Critical in Determining Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination. Toxins 2018, 10, 530. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120530

AMA Style

Prencipe S, Siciliano I, Gatti C, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, Spadaro D. Chestnut Drying Is Critical in Determining Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination. Toxins. 2018; 10(12):530. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prencipe, Simona, Ilenia Siciliano, Carlotta Gatti, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Angelo Garibaldi, and Davide Spadaro. 2018. "Chestnut Drying Is Critical in Determining Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination" Toxins 10, no. 12: 530. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120530

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop