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Review

Pharmacological Targeting of Pore-Forming Toxins as Adjunctive Therapy for Invasive Bacterial Infection

1
Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program and Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120542
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins)
For many of the most important human bacterial infections, invasive disease severity is fueled by the cell damaging and pro-inflammatory effects of secreted pore-forming toxins (PFTs). Isogenic PFT-knockout mutants, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus lacking α-toxin or Streptococcus pneumoniae deficient in pneumolysin, show attenuation in animal infection models. This knowledge has inspired multi-model investigations of strategies to neutralize PFTs or counteract their toxicity as a novel pharmacological approach to ameliorate disease pathogenesis in clinical disease. Promising examples of small molecule, antibody or nanotherapeutic drug candidates that directly bind and neutralize PFTs, block their oligomerization or membrane receptor interactions, plug establishment membrane pores, or boost host cell resiliency to withstand PFT action have emerged. The present review highlights these new concepts, with a special focus on β-PFTs produced by leading invasive human Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Such anti-virulence therapies could be applied as an adjunctive therapy to antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains alike, and further could be free of deleterious effects that deplete the normal microflora. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pore-forming toxin; bacterial infection; virulence factor; pharmacology; adjunctive therapy Pore-forming toxin; bacterial infection; virulence factor; pharmacology; adjunctive therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Escajadillo, T.; Nizet, V. Pharmacological Targeting of Pore-Forming Toxins as Adjunctive Therapy for Invasive Bacterial Infection. Toxins 2018, 10, 542. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120542

AMA Style

Escajadillo T, Nizet V. Pharmacological Targeting of Pore-Forming Toxins as Adjunctive Therapy for Invasive Bacterial Infection. Toxins. 2018; 10(12):542. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120542

Chicago/Turabian Style

Escajadillo, Tamara, and Victor Nizet. 2018. "Pharmacological Targeting of Pore-Forming Toxins as Adjunctive Therapy for Invasive Bacterial Infection" Toxins 10, no. 12: 542. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120542

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