Next Article in Journal
Chestnut Drying Is Critical in Determining Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination
Previous Article in Journal
Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3251 Growth, Oxidative Status, and Aflatoxins Production Ability In Vitro under Different Illumination Regimes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of the Potential Inactivation of Tetrodotoxin by Lactic Acid Bacterial Exopolysaccharide
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 529;

Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus

Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing and Quality Safety, Marine Fisheries Research Institute of Zhejiang, Zhoushan 316100, China
School of Food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China
Quality and Standard Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1874 KB, uploaded 10 December 2018]   |  
  |   Review Reports


Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a marine biotoxin that has high scientific value. However, the lack of efficient TTX extraction and preparation methods has led to a scarcity of TTX samples for clinical application. In this study, TTX from the liver of Takifugu pseudommus was ultrasound-assisted extracted with acidified organic solvents. The extraction process was analyzed and optimized by single factor method and response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal extraction conditions predicted by a response surface model were as follows: liquid:material ratio, 2.8:1; extraction temperature, 60 °C; extraction time, 23.3 min. Under these conditions, the extraction of TTX had a yield of 89.65%, and the results were further verified by experimental extraction, and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). It was found that the extracts of T. pseudommus liver contained TTX and its four analogues at certain proportions (TTX: 10.4%; 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX: 83.3%; 5,11-dideoxyTTX:2.4%; 4,9-anhydro TTX:2.6%; 5-deoxyTTX:1.3%). This study demonstrates a stable and efficient extraction process of TTX from pufferfish liver, which can be helpful for further research and analysis, as well as the utilization of TTX from pufferfish. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; response surface methodology; pufferfish tetrodotoxin; response surface methodology; pufferfish

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Han, C.; Chen, S.; Li, L.; Zong, J.; Zeng, J.; Mei, G. Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus. Toxins 2018, 10, 529.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top