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Article

Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus

1
Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing and Quality Safety, Marine Fisheries Research Institute of Zhejiang, Zhoushan 316100, China
2
School of Food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China
3
Quality and Standard Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120529
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxins)
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a marine biotoxin that has high scientific value. However, the lack of efficient TTX extraction and preparation methods has led to a scarcity of TTX samples for clinical application. In this study, TTX from the liver of Takifugu pseudommus was ultrasound-assisted extracted with acidified organic solvents. The extraction process was analyzed and optimized by single factor method and response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal extraction conditions predicted by a response surface model were as follows: liquid:material ratio, 2.8:1; extraction temperature, 60 °C; extraction time, 23.3 min. Under these conditions, the extraction of TTX had a yield of 89.65%, and the results were further verified by experimental extraction, and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). It was found that the extracts of T. pseudommus liver contained TTX and its four analogues at certain proportions (TTX: 10.4%; 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX: 83.3%; 5,11-dideoxyTTX:2.4%; 4,9-anhydro TTX:2.6%; 5-deoxyTTX:1.3%). This study demonstrates a stable and efficient extraction process of TTX from pufferfish liver, which can be helpful for further research and analysis, as well as the utilization of TTX from pufferfish. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; response surface methodology; pufferfish tetrodotoxin; response surface methodology; pufferfish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Han, C.; Chen, S.; Li, L.; Zong, J.; Zeng, J.; Mei, G. Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus. Toxins 2018, 10, 529. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120529

AMA Style

Zhang X, Han C, Chen S, Li L, Zong J, Zeng J, Mei G. Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus. Toxins. 2018; 10(12):529. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120529

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Xiaojun, Chengcheng Han, Si Chen, Le Li, Jingjing Zong, Junjie Zeng, and Guangming Mei. 2018. "Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tetrodotoxin from the Liver of Takifugu pseudommus" Toxins 10, no. 12: 529. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120529

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