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A Novel Millet-Based Probiotic Fermented Food for the Developing World

Food Microbiology, University of Wageningen, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
F3-106, Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada
Food and Nutritional Sciences, Brescia College, London, ON N6G 1H2, Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON N5V 4T3, Canada
Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Surgery, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and are joint first authors.
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 529;
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L. rhamnosus GR-1 when grown in 8% millet in water. Single cultures of L. rhamnosus GR-1 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of dextrose, galactose and fructose. Single cultures of S. thermophilus C106 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of sucrose and lactose. All tested recipes reached viable counts of the probiotic bacteria, with counts greater than 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Notably, a number of organic acids were quantified, in particular phytic acid, which was shown to decrease when fermentation time increased, thereby improving the bioavailability of specific micronutrients. Millet fermented in milk proved to be the most favorable, according to a sensory evaluation. In conclusion, this study has shown that sachets being provided to African communities to produce fermented milk, can also be used to produce fermented millet. This provides an option for when milk supplies are short, or if communities wish to utilize the nutrient-rich qualities of locally-grown millet. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotic; millet; yogurt; cereal; fermentation; sub-Saharan Africa probiotic; millet; yogurt; cereal; fermentation; sub-Saharan Africa
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Di Stefano, E.; White, J.; Seney, S.; Hekmat, S.; McDowell, T.; Sumarah, M.; Reid, G. A Novel Millet-Based Probiotic Fermented Food for the Developing World. Nutrients 2017, 9, 529.

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