Next Article in Journal
A Novel Millet-Based Probiotic Fermented Food for the Developing World
Previous Article in Journal
Retraction: Hsia et al. Post-Intake of S-Ethyl Cysteine and S-Methyl Cysteine Improved LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 507
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 530;

(−)-Epiafzelechin Protects against Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Adult Mice and Modulate Osteoblastic and Osteoclastic Functions In Vitro

State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen 518057, China
Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control, Shenzhen 518057, China
Department of Chemistry, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 0B8, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1441 KB, uploaded 22 May 2017]   |  


The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (−)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice. EAF significantly increased cell viability, alkaline phosphatise (ALP) activity, and collagen content, as well as runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA expression in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, EAF significantly reduced the viability of osteoclast precursor murine leukemia monocyte RAW 264.7 cells and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities in mature osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. EAF is a bioactive flavan-3-ol that protects estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in OVX mice and exerts direct modulating effects in bone cells in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: (−)-epiafzelechin; flavan-3-ol; ovariectomised; osteogenesis; osteoclastogenesis; trabecular bone (−)-epiafzelechin; flavan-3-ol; ovariectomised; osteogenesis; osteoclastogenesis; trabecular bone

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, K.-C.; Cao, S.; Dong, X.; Law, M.-C.; Chan, T.-H.; Wong, M.-S. (−)-Epiafzelechin Protects against Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Adult Mice and Modulate Osteoblastic and Osteoclastic Functions In Vitro. Nutrients 2017, 9, 530.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top