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Open AccessArticle

(−)-Epiafzelechin Protects against Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Adult Mice and Modulate Osteoblastic and Osteoclastic Functions In Vitro

by Ka-Chun Wong 1,2,†, Sisi Cao 1,2,†, Xiaoli Dong 2,3, Man-Chun Law 2, Tak-Hang Chan 2,4 and Man-Sau Wong 1,2,3,*
State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen 518057, China
Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control, Shenzhen 518057, China
Department of Chemistry, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 0B8, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 530;
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (−)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice. EAF significantly increased cell viability, alkaline phosphatise (ALP) activity, and collagen content, as well as runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA expression in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, EAF significantly reduced the viability of osteoclast precursor murine leukemia monocyte RAW 264.7 cells and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities in mature osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. EAF is a bioactive flavan-3-ol that protects estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in OVX mice and exerts direct modulating effects in bone cells in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: (−)-epiafzelechin; flavan-3-ol; ovariectomised; osteogenesis; osteoclastogenesis; trabecular bone (−)-epiafzelechin; flavan-3-ol; ovariectomised; osteogenesis; osteoclastogenesis; trabecular bone
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Wong, K.-C.; Cao, S.; Dong, X.; Law, M.-C.; Chan, T.-H.; Wong, M.-S. (−)-Epiafzelechin Protects against Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Adult Mice and Modulate Osteoblastic and Osteoclastic Functions In Vitro. Nutrients 2017, 9, 530.

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