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Open AccessArticle

Consumption of Fruit or Fiber-Fruit Decreases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Mediterranean Young Cohort

Atención Primaria, Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea, 08010 Navarra, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Emergency, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 295;
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the risk of CVD adjusted for the principal confounding factors in a Mediterranean cohort of young adults, the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, Follow-up) cohort. After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, we observed 112 cases of CVD among 17,007 participants (61% female, mean age 38 years). We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and CVD events (p for trend = 0.024) and also between the highest quintile of fruit consumption (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.95) or whole grains consumption (HR 0.43 95% CI 0.20–0.93) and CVD compared to the lowest quintile, and also a HR of 0.58 (95% CI 0.37–0.90) for the participants who ate at least 175 g/day of fruit. Only the participants in the highest quintile of fruit-derived fiber intake had a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28–0.97). The participants who ate at least one serving per week of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk than those who did not (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30–0.89). In conclusion, high fruit consumption, whole grain consumption, or consumption of at least one serving/week of cruciferous vegetables may be protective against CVD in young Mediterranean populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: fiber; fruit; vegetables; cardiovascular disease; legumes; whole grains fiber; fruit; vegetables; cardiovascular disease; legumes; whole grains
MDPI and ACS Style

Buil-Cosiales, P.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Díez-Espino, J.; García-Arellano, A.; Toledo, E. Consumption of Fruit or Fiber-Fruit Decreases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Mediterranean Young Cohort. Nutrients 2017, 9, 295.

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