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Open AccessArticle

Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 4 St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo, Norway
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1046 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 602;
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. View Full-Text
Keywords: food; nutrient intake; infants; immigrants; Norway food; nutrient intake; infants; immigrants; Norway
MDPI and ACS Style

Grewal, N.K.; Andersen, L.F.; Kolve, C.S.; Kverndalen, I.; Torheim, L.E. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants. Nutrients 2016, 8, 602.

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