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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Lausanne 1000, Switzerland
Nestlé Health Sciences, Nestec Ltd., Epalinges 1066, Switzerland
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 606;
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; amino acids; lactation period; cross-sectional study breast milk; amino acids; lactation period; cross-sectional study
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Garcia-Rodenas, C.L.; Affolter, M.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; De Castro, C.A.; Karagounis, L.G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P.; Thakkar, S.K. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers. Nutrients 2016, 8, 606.

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