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Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

Discipline of Medicine, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, the University of Adelaide, 5000 Adelaide, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Food and Nutrition, 5000 Adelaide, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 28;
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: ageing; energy intake; appetite; hunger; fullness; elderly ageing; energy intake; appetite; hunger; fullness; elderly
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Giezenaar, C.; Chapman, I.; Luscombe-Marsh, N.; Feinle-Bisset, C.; Horowitz, M.; Soenen, S. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2016, 8, 28.

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