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Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 2420 2nd Avenue N., Grand Forks, ND, 58203, USA
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, 225 Food Science and Nutrition, 1334 Eckles Avenue Street Paul, MN 55108, USA
Centre for Exercise, Nutrition, and Health Sciences, School of Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol, BS8 1TZ, UK
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Office of National Programs, 5601 Sunnyside Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 6060-6075;
Received: 30 September 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: seafood intake; fish; shellfish seafood intake; fish; shellfish
MDPI and ACS Style

Jahns, L.; Raatz, S.K.; Johnson, L.K.; Kranz, S.; Silverstein, J.T.; Picklo, M.J., Sr. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity. Nutrients 2014, 6, 6060-6075.

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