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Article

Influence of Nutritional Intakes in Japan and the United States on COVID-19 Infection

Department of Medical Chemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Saitama 350-0288, Japan
Academic Editors: Laura Di Renzo and Lara Jose
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030633
Received: 4 January 2022 / Revised: 27 January 2022 / Accepted: 31 January 2022 / Published: 1 February 2022
The U.S. and Japan are both democratic industrialized societies, but the numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths per million people in the U.S. (including Japanese Americans) are 12.1-times and 17.4-times higher, respectively, than those in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diet on preventing COVID-19 infection. An analysis of dietary intake and the prevalence of obesity in the populations of both countries was performed, and their effects on COVID-19 infection were examined. Approximately 1.5-times more saturated fat and less eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid are consumed in the U.S. than in Japan. Compared with food intakes in Japan (100%), those in the U.S. were as follows: beef 396%, sugar and sweeteners 235%, fish 44.3%, rice 11.5%, soybeans 0.5%, and tea 54.7%. The last four of these foods contain functional substances that prevent COVID-19. The prevalence of obesity is 7.4- and 10-times greater in the U.S. than in Japan for males and females, respectively. Mendelian randomization established a causal relationship between obesity and COVID-19 infection. Large differences in nutrient intakes and the prevalence of obesity, but not racial differences, may be partly responsible for differences in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 between the U.S. and Japan. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; obesity; saturated fat; EPA/DHA; soybean; diabetes; mortality; Japanese COVID-19; obesity; saturated fat; EPA/DHA; soybean; diabetes; mortality; Japanese
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kagawa, Y. Influence of Nutritional Intakes in Japan and the United States on COVID-19 Infection. Nutrients 2022, 14, 633. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030633

AMA Style

Kagawa Y. Influence of Nutritional Intakes in Japan and the United States on COVID-19 Infection. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):633. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030633

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kagawa, Yasuo. 2022. "Influence of Nutritional Intakes in Japan and the United States on COVID-19 Infection" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 633. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030633

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