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Review

The Role of Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Flavonoid Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis

1
Department of Zoology and Anthropology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Informatics, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
2
Department of Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Informatics, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Simone Perna
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030523
Received: 4 January 2022 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
Osteoporosis is considered an age-related disorder of the skeletal system, characterized primarily by decreased bone mineral density (BMD), microstructural quality and an elevated risk of fragility fractures. This silent disease is increasingly becoming a global epidemic due to an aging population and longer life expectancy. It is known that nutrition and physical activity play an important role in skeletal health, both in achieving the highest BMD and in maintaining bone health. In this review, the role of macronutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates), micronutrients (minerals—calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, as well as vitamins—D, C, K) and flavonoid polyphenols (quercetin, rutin, luteolin, kaempferol, naringin) which appear to be essential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, are characterized. Moreover, the importance of various naturally available nutrients, whether in the diet or in food supplements, is emphasized. In addition to pharmacotherapy, the basis of osteoporosis prevention is a healthy diet rich mainly in fruits, vegetables, seafood and fish oil supplements, specific dairy products, containing a sufficient amount of all aforementioned nutritional substances along with regular physical activity. The effect of diet alone in this context may depend on an individual’s genotype, gene-diet interactions or the composition and function of the gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; nutrition; macronutrients; micronutrients; flavonoid polyphenols; prevention; treatment osteoporosis; nutrition; macronutrients; micronutrients; flavonoid polyphenols; prevention; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martiniakova, M.; Babikova, M.; Mondockova, V.; Blahova, J.; Kovacova, V.; Omelka, R. The Role of Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Flavonoid Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Nutrients 2022, 14, 523. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030523

AMA Style

Martiniakova M, Babikova M, Mondockova V, Blahova J, Kovacova V, Omelka R. The Role of Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Flavonoid Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):523. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martiniakova, Monika, Martina Babikova, Vladimira Mondockova, Jana Blahova, Veronika Kovacova, and Radoslav Omelka. 2022. "The Role of Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Flavonoid Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 523. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030523

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