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Article

Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Determining Nutrient Intake in Older Adults in New Zealand: The REACH Study

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College of Health, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
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The Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
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School of Food & Advanced Technology, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gordon I. Smith
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030519
Received: 28 November 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 23 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Dietary intake is an important predictor of health and disease outcomes. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relative validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing energy and nutrient intake in older adults. Dietary data were collected 2018–2019 in Auckland, New Zealand from a convenience sample of community-dwelling adults (65–74 years, n = 294, 37% male) using a 109-item self-administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and four weeks later to assess reproducibility. FFQ1 was compared to a four-day food record to determine relative validity. Agreement between dietary assessment tools was assessed for both raw and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes using paired t-tests, correlation coefficients, weighted kappa statistic, Bland–Altman plots, and linear regression analysis. Energy adjustments moderately improved the relative validity and reproducibility for most nutrients. For energy and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, the mean correlation coefficients were 0.38 (validity) and 0.65 (reproducibility); the mean weighted kappa statistics were 0.27 (validity) and 0.51 (reproducibility). A significant slope of bias was present in 54% (validity) and 25% (reproducibility) of Bland–Altman plots. The Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health (REACH) FFQ has acceptable relative validity and good reproducibility for ranking nutrient intakes in older New Zealand adults, but is less suitable for assessing absolute nutrient intakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition assessment; food diary; food frequency questionnaire; validation; macronutrient intake; micronutrient intake; dietary assessment tool nutrition assessment; food diary; food frequency questionnaire; validation; macronutrient intake; micronutrient intake; dietary assessment tool
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, A.D.; Mumme, K.D.; Conlon, C.A.; von Hurst, P.R.; Gillies, N.; Heath, A.-L.; Coad, J.; Beck, K.L. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Determining Nutrient Intake in Older Adults in New Zealand: The REACH Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030519

AMA Style

Yu AD, Mumme KD, Conlon CA, von Hurst PR, Gillies N, Heath A-L, Coad J, Beck KL. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Determining Nutrient Intake in Older Adults in New Zealand: The REACH Study. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030519

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Angela D., Karen D. Mumme, Cathryn A. Conlon, Pamela R. von Hurst, Nicola Gillies, Anne-Louise Heath, Jane Coad, and Kathryn L. Beck. 2022. "Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Determining Nutrient Intake in Older Adults in New Zealand: The REACH Study" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030519

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