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Metabolic Syndrome, Cognitive Impairment and the Role of Diet: A Narrative Review

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Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
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Functional Foods and Nutrition Research (FFNR) Laboratory, University of Canberra, Bruce, Canberra, ACT 2617, Australia
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Food and Mood Centre, IMPACT—The Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
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Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
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School of Nutritional Sciences and Wellness, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020333
Received: 13 December 2021 / Revised: 4 January 2022 / Accepted: 10 January 2022 / Published: 13 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Background: This narrative review presents the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS), along with its components, and cognition-related disorders, as well as the potential reversal role of diet against cognitive impairment by modulating MetS. Methods: An electronic research in Medline (Pubmed) and Scopus was conducted. Results: MetS and cognitive decline share common cardiometabolic pathways as MetS components can trigger cognitive impairment. On the other side, the risk factors for both MetS and cognitive impairment can be reduced by optimizing the nutritional intake. Clinical manifestations such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and increased central body adiposity are nutrition-related risk factors present during the prodromal period before cognitive impairment. The Mediterranean dietary pattern stands among the most discussed predominantly plant-based diets in relation to cardiometabolic disorders that may prevent dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and other cognition-related disorders. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the consumption of specific dietary food groups as a part of the overall diet can improve cognitive outcomes, maybe due to their involvement in cardiometabolic paths. Conclusions: Early MetS detection may be helpful to prevent or delay cognitive decline. Moreover, this review highlights the importance of healthy nutritional habits to reverse such conditions and the urgency of early lifestyle interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; dementia; cognitive impairment; cognition; nutrition; healthy aging metabolic syndrome; dementia; cognitive impairment; cognition; nutrition; healthy aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kouvari, M.; D’Cunha, N.M.; Travica, N.; Sergi, D.; Zec, M.; Marx, W.; Naumovski, N. Metabolic Syndrome, Cognitive Impairment and the Role of Diet: A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2022, 14, 333. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020333

AMA Style

Kouvari M, D’Cunha NM, Travica N, Sergi D, Zec M, Marx W, Naumovski N. Metabolic Syndrome, Cognitive Impairment and the Role of Diet: A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2022; 14(2):333. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020333

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kouvari, Matina, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Nikolaj Travica, Domenico Sergi, Manja Zec, Wolfgang Marx, and Nenad Naumovski. 2022. "Metabolic Syndrome, Cognitive Impairment and the Role of Diet: A Narrative Review" Nutrients 14, no. 2: 333. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020333

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