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Article

Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Reveals That Fucoidan Induces Type I IFN Pathways in BMDC

by 1,2,3,†, 4,5,†, 1,2,3,†, 6, 1,2, 1,2,3, 1,3,7, 4, 4,5,* and 1,2,3,8,9,*
1
Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
2
Department of Infection Biology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
3
Brain Korea 21 FOUR Project for Medical Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
4
Personalized Genomic Medicine Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
5
Department of Bioscience, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
6
Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
7
Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
8
Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
9
Translational Immunology Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Wenjuan Li
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112242
Received: 4 May 2022 / Revised: 21 May 2022 / Accepted: 23 May 2022 / Published: 27 May 2022
Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, has been proposed to effectively treat and prevent various viral infections. However, the mechanisms behind its antiviral activity are not completely understood. We investigate here the global transcriptional changes in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) using RNA-Seq technology. Through both analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), we found that fucoidan-treated BMDCs were enriched in virus-specific response pathways, including that of SARS-CoV-2, as well as pathways associated with nucleic acid-sensing receptors (RLR, TLR, NLR, STING), and type I interferon (IFN) production. We show that these transcriptome changes are driven by well-known regulators of the inflammatory response against viruses, including IRF, NF-κB, and STAT family transcription factors. Furthermore, 435 of the 950 upregulated DEGs are classified as type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Flow cytometric analysis additionally showed that fucoidan increased MHCII, CD80, and CD40 surface markers in BMDCs, indicative of greater antigen presentation and co-stimulation functionality. Our current study suggests that fucoidan transcriptionally activates PRR signaling, type I IFN production and signaling, ISGs production, and DC maturation, highlighting a potential mechanism of fucoidan-induced antiviral activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMDC; dendritic cells; fucoidan; differentially expressed genes (DEGs); gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA); type I IFN; innate immune cells; PRR; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral BMDC; dendritic cells; fucoidan; differentially expressed genes (DEGs); gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA); type I IFN; innate immune cells; PRR; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, S.; Jeon, S.A.; Heo, B.Y.; Kang, J.-G.; Jung, Y.; Duong, P.T.T.; Song, I.-C.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, S.-Y.; Kwon, J. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Reveals That Fucoidan Induces Type I IFN Pathways in BMDC. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112242

AMA Style

Choi S, Jeon SA, Heo BY, Kang J-G, Jung Y, Duong PTT, Song I-C, Kim J-H, Kim S-Y, Kwon J. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Reveals That Fucoidan Induces Type I IFN Pathways in BMDC. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112242

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Suyoung, Sol A. Jeon, Bu Y. Heo, Ju-Gyeong Kang, Yunju Jung, Pham T.T. Duong, Ik-Chan Song, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, and Jaeyul Kwon. 2022. "Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Reveals That Fucoidan Induces Type I IFN Pathways in BMDC" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112242

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