Drugs and food interact mutually: drugs may affect the nutritional status of the body, acting on senses, appetite, resting energy expenditure, and food intake; conversely, food or one of its components may affect bioavailability and half-life, circulating plasma concentrations of drugs resulting in an increased risk of toxicity and its adverse effects, or therapeutic failure. Therefore, the knowledge of these possible interactions is fundamental for the implementation of a nutritional treatment in the presence of a pharmacological therapy. This is the case of chronic kidney disease (CKD), for which the medication burden could be a problem, and nutritional therapy plays an important role in the patient’s treatment. The aim of this paper was to review the interactions that take place between drugs and foods that can potentially be used in renal patients, and the changes in nutritional status induced by drugs. A proper definition of the amount of food/nutrient intake, an adequate definition of the timing of meal consumption, and a proper adjustment of the drug dosing schedule may avoid these interactions, safeguarding the quality of life of the patients and guaranteeing the effectiveness of drug therapy. Hence, a close collaboration between the nephrologist, the renal dietitian, and the patient is crucial. Dietitians should consider that food may interact with drugs and that drugs may affect nutritional status, in order to provide the patient with proper dietary suggestions, and to allow the maximum effectiveness and safety of drug therapy, while preserving/correcting the nutritional status.
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