Consensus, Global Definitions of Whole Grain as a Food Ingredient and of Whole-Grain Foods Presented on Behalf of the Whole Grain Initiative
1.1. Whole Grains—Dietary Recommendations, Rationale, and Intake
1.2. Trends in Consumption, Consumer Perceptions, and Desires for Labelling
1.3. The Need for Globally Accepted Definitions for Whole Grains as a Food Ingredient and for a Whole-Grain Food
2. The Global Definition of Whole Grains as a Food Ingredient
2.1. General Remarks
2.2. Grains to Be Included
2.3. Processing Aspects
3. The Global Definition of a Whole-Grain Food
3.1. General Remarks
- Definition of a whole-grain food
- Requirements for designating the presence of ‘whole grain’ front-of-pack
3.2. A Generic Definition Based on Dry Weight
3.3. A Whole-Grain Food—At Least 50% Whole-Grain Ingredients Based on Dry Weight
3.4. Minimum Level for Mentioning Whole Grain Front-of-Pack: 25% Whole-Grain Ingredients Based on Dry Weight
- The first whole grain food recommendation was based on the United States Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including the guidance to make ‘half your grains whole’. The first whole grain health claim allowed by the U.S. FDA defined a whole-grain product eligible for a claim around whole-grain bread with 51% whole-grain wheat flour . Because 1 slice (serving) of whole-wheat bread has 16 g whole grain, one-half of the full serving of whole grain would be 8 g. The 8 g whole grain, which was used in most early epidemiological studies examining the relationship between whole grain and health outcomes, was considered as the minimum meaningful amount of whole grain deserving of mention front-of-pack.
- This 8 g whole grain/serving is currently widely recommended as a minimum level, for example, in the regulation in Malaysia , the recommendation by the UK-based Institute of Grocery Distribution , the whole grain stamp systems outlined below of the Whole Grains Council (WGC) , and the Australian Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council (GLNC) . The GLNC states the following: To carry GLNC certification a product must (…) contain at least 8 g whole grain per manufacturer serve AND at least 25% whole grain ingredients. For the WGC, 8 g per serving or 25 g/100 g (depending on the country) is the minimum level for using a stamp, whereas for calling a food a whole-grain food, at least half of the grain ingredients have to be whole. The stamps indicate both the % whole grain of all grain components and the amount of whole grain per serving or per 100 g. The whole grain intake recommendation of 48 g is the extrapolation of the average number of servings of grain per day in the U.S. (6 servings), and if each serving delivers 8 g whole grain, then the daily recommendation is 48 g whole grain.
- When using the relatively small serving sizes as recommended by the USDA and the Whole Grains Council , and following the criteria of the GNLC, 8 g whole grain per serving corresponds to ~25–30 g whole grain/100 g.
- Serves or serving sizes are defined differently in different countries. Therefore, in order to avoid confusion in a global definition, the minimum amount of whole-grain ingredients is expressed as a percentage.
4. Final Remarks
Conflicts of Interest
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van der Kamp, J.-W.; Jones, J.M.; Miller, K.B.; Ross, A.B.; Seal, C.J.; Tan, B.; Beck, E.J. Consensus, Global Definitions of Whole Grain as a Food Ingredient and of Whole-Grain Foods Presented on Behalf of the Whole Grain Initiative. Nutrients 2022, 14, 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010138
van der Kamp J-W, Jones JM, Miller KB, Ross AB, Seal CJ, Tan B, Beck EJ. Consensus, Global Definitions of Whole Grain as a Food Ingredient and of Whole-Grain Foods Presented on Behalf of the Whole Grain Initiative. Nutrients. 2022; 14(1):138. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010138Chicago/Turabian Style
van der Kamp, Jan-Willem, Julie Miller Jones, Kevin B. Miller, Alastair B. Ross, Chris J. Seal, Bin Tan, and Eleanor J. Beck. 2022. "Consensus, Global Definitions of Whole Grain as a Food Ingredient and of Whole-Grain Foods Presented on Behalf of the Whole Grain Initiative" Nutrients 14, no. 1: 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010138