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Review

Has Menstruation Disappeared? Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea—What Is This Story about?

1
Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
2
Neonatal Clinic, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pasquapina Ciarmela
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082827
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Gynecologic Disease)
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a very common condition affecting women of procreative age. There are many reasons for this disorder, including a low availability of energy in the diet, low micro- and macronutrient intake, overly intensive physical activity, disturbed regeneration processes, sleep disorders, stress, and psychological disorders. The main determinant is long-term stress and an inability to handle the effects of that stress. FHA is a very complex disorder and often goes undiagnosed. Moreover, therapeutic interventions do not address all the causes of the disorder, which could have implications for women’s health. As shown by scientific reports, this condition can be reversed by modifying its causes. This review of the literature aims to update the current knowledge of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and underscores the complexity of the disorder, with particular emphasis on the nutritional aspects and potential interventions for restoring balance. View Full-Text
Keywords: gynecologic disease; amenorrhea; nutrition; ovary; uterus; stress; low energy; physical activity gynecologic disease; amenorrhea; nutrition; ovary; uterus; stress; low energy; physical activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ryterska, K.; Kordek, A.; Załęska, P. Has Menstruation Disappeared? Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea—What Is This Story about? Nutrients 2021, 13, 2827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082827

AMA Style

Ryterska K, Kordek A, Załęska P. Has Menstruation Disappeared? Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea—What Is This Story about? Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082827

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ryterska, Karina, Agnieszka Kordek, and Patrycja Załęska. 2021. "Has Menstruation Disappeared? Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea—What Is This Story about?" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082827

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