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Systematic Review

Oat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department Istanbul, Faculty of Medicine Public Health, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul 34734, Turkey
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Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
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Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, Nutritional Medicine, and Metabolism, Inselspital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
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School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
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Medical School, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
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Standard Process Nutrition Innovation Center, Kannapolis, NC 28018, USA
8
Public Health & Primary Care Library, University Library of Bern, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Francis Finucane
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2560; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082560
Received: 28 June 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain the top disease and mortality burdens worldwide. Oats have been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and improve insulin resistance. However, the evidence linking oat consumption with CVD, T2D and all-cause mortality remains inconclusive. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the associations between oat consumption and risks of T2D, CVD and all-cause mortality in the general population. Five electronic databases were searched until September, 2020. Study specific relative risks (RR) were meta-analyzed using random effect models. Of 4686 relevant references, we included 9 articles, based on 8 unique studies and 471,157 participants. Comparing oat consumers versus non-consumers, RRs were 0.86 (95% CI 0.72–1.03) for T2D incidence and 0.73 (95% CI 0.5–1.07) for combined CVD incidence. Comparing participants with highest versus lowest oat intake, RRs were 0.78 (95% CI 0.74–0.82) for T2D incidence, 0.81 (95% CI 0.61–1.08) for CHD incidence and 0.79 (95% CI 0.59–1.07) for stroke. For all-cause mortality one study based on three cohorts found RR for men and women were 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.85) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.70–0.87), respectively. Most studies (n = 6) were of fair to good quality. This meta-analysis suggests that consumption of oat could reduce the risk for T2D and all-cause mortality, while no significant association was found for CVD. Future studies should address a lack of standardized methods in assessing overall oat intake and type of oat products, and investigate a dose-dependent response of oat products on cardiometabolic outcomes in order to introduce oat as preventive and treatment options for the public. View Full-Text
Keywords: oat; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease; mortality oat; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wehrli, F.; Taneri, P.E.; Bano, A.; Bally, L.; Blekkenhorst, L.C.; Bussler, W.; Metzger, B.; Minder, B.; Glisic, M.; Muka, T.; Kern, H. Oat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2560. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082560

AMA Style

Wehrli F, Taneri PE, Bano A, Bally L, Blekkenhorst LC, Bussler W, Metzger B, Minder B, Glisic M, Muka T, Kern H. Oat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2560. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082560

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wehrli, Faina, Petek E. Taneri, Arjola Bano, Lia Bally, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Weston Bussler, Brandon Metzger, Beatrice Minder, Marija Glisic, Taulant Muka, and Hua Kern. 2021. "Oat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2560. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082560

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