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Article

The Digestibility of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Polyphenols Using an In Vitro Human Digestion Model and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity

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Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
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Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
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Department of Sciences and Technologies for Human and Environment, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy
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BeSeps.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
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Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franck Gael Carbonero
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072360
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 10 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (H.s.) is a polyphenolic-rich plant commonly consumed either as a beverage or spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro digestibility of H.s. polyphenols using an in vitro model of digestion which simulates the human stomach and small intestine. The bioaccessible polyphenols released in the digested samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. H.s. anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside) content drastically dropped during the digestion process from 2.91 ± 0.03 µg g−1 and 8.53 ± 0.08 µg g−1 (w/w) CG (Cyanidin-glucoside) in the raw extract, respectively, to 0.12 ± 0.01 µg g−1 0.12 ± 0.01 µg g−1 (w/w) CG at the end of duodenal digestion. Total polyphenols also have shown a decrease from 1192.65 ± 30.37 µg g−1 (w/w) in the raw extract to 282.24 ± 7.21 µg g−1 (w/w) by the end of gastric digestion, in contrast to their increase by the end of duodenal digestion 372.91 ± 3.97 µg g−1 (w/w). On the other hand, the decrease in certain compounds (e.g., caffeoylquinicandcoumaroylquinic acids) was observed during gastric digestion resulting in an increase of quinic acid in the duodenal aliquots, thus suggesting that this compound was derived from the degradation of the more complex hydroxycinnamic acids. H.s. extract also exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (MIC of 2.5 mg mL−1) and a bactericidal effect against a food isolate of Listeria monocytogenes (MBC of 2.5 mg mL−1). The undigested polyphenols of H.s. in the upper gastrointestinal tract enters the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. The present study results showed that resistance of H.s. polyphenols during gastrointestinal digestion might affect their uptake, resulting in a decrease in their digestibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: simulated human digestion; digestibility; Hibiscus sabdariffa; anthocyanin; polyphenol; antibacterial activity simulated human digestion; digestibility; Hibiscus sabdariffa; anthocyanin; polyphenol; antibacterial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Majdoub, Y.O.E.; Ginestra, G.; Mandalari, G.; Dugo, P.; Mondello, L.; Cacciola, F. The Digestibility of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Polyphenols Using an In Vitro Human Digestion Model and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072360

AMA Style

Majdoub YOE, Ginestra G, Mandalari G, Dugo P, Mondello L, Cacciola F. The Digestibility of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Polyphenols Using an In Vitro Human Digestion Model and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Majdoub, Yassine O.E., Giovanna Ginestra, Giuseppina Mandalari, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello, and Francesco Cacciola. 2021. "The Digestibility of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Polyphenols Using an In Vitro Human Digestion Model and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2360. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072360

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