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Therapeutic Effects of Catechins in Less Common Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disorders

1
Department of Neonatology, Hospital Clínic-Maternitat, ICGON, BCNatal, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain
3
BCNatal, Fetal Medicine Research Center (Hospital Sant Joan de Déu and Hospital Clínic), University of Barcelona, 08950 Barcelona, Spain
4
Grup de Recerca Infancia i Entorn (GRIE), Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
5
Department of Neonatology, Kepler University Hospital, Johannes Kepler University, Faculty of Medicine, Krankenhausstrasse 26–30, 4020 Linz, Austria
6
Neurobiology of Behaviour Research Group (GReNeC-NeuroBio), Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
7
Neuroscience Research Programme, IMIM-Hospital del Mar Research Institute, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
8
Department of Nutrition and Health, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally as first author to this work.
These authors contributed equally as last author to this work.
Academic Editors: Mara Dierssen and Rafael de la Torre
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072232
Received: 25 April 2021 / Revised: 22 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cognition in Health and Disease)
In recent years, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders research has focused on altered molecular mechanisms in search of potential pharmacological targets, e.g., imbalances in mechanisms of response to oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and neuronal plasticity, which occur in less common neurological and neurodegenerative pathologies (Huntington disease, multiple sclerosis, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and Down syndrome). Here, we assess the effects of different catechins (particularly of epigalocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) on these disorders, as well as their use in attenuating age-related cognitive decline in healthy individuals. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of EGCG -due to their phenolic hydroxyl groups-, as well as its immunomodulatory, neuritogenic, and autophagic characteristics, makes this catechin a promising tool against neuroinflammation and microglia activation, common in these pathologies. Although EGCG promotes the inhibition of protein aggregation in experimental Huntington disease studies and improves the clinical severity in multiple sclerosis in animal models, its efficacy in humans remains controversial. EGCG may normalize DYRK1A (involved in neural plasticity) overproduction in Down syndrome, improving behavioral and neural phenotypes. In neurological pathologies caused by environmental agents, such as FASD, EGCG enhances antioxidant defense and regulates placental angiogenesis and neurodevelopmental processes. As demonstrated in animal models, catechins attenuate age-related cognitive decline, which results in improvements in long-term outcomes and working memory, reduction of hippocampal neuroinflammation, and enhancement of neuronal plasticity; however, further studies are needed. Catechins are valuable compounds for treating and preventing certain neurodegenerative and neurological diseases of genetic and environmental origin. However, the use of different doses of green tea extracts and EGCG makes it difficult to reach consistent conclusions for different populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: catechins; epigallocatechin-3-gallate; antioxidant; neurodegenerative disorders; neurological disorders; multiple sclerosis; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; Down syndrome; age-related cognitive decline catechins; epigallocatechin-3-gallate; antioxidant; neurodegenerative disorders; neurological disorders; multiple sclerosis; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; Down syndrome; age-related cognitive decline
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sebastiani, G.; Almeida-Toledano, L.; Serra-Delgado, M.; Navarro-Tapia, E.; Sailer, S.; Valverde, O.; Garcia-Algar, O.; Andreu-Fernández, V. Therapeutic Effects of Catechins in Less Common Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2232. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072232

AMA Style

Sebastiani G, Almeida-Toledano L, Serra-Delgado M, Navarro-Tapia E, Sailer S, Valverde O, Garcia-Algar O, Andreu-Fernández V. Therapeutic Effects of Catechins in Less Common Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2232. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sebastiani, Giorgia, Laura Almeida-Toledano, Mariona Serra-Delgado, Elisabet Navarro-Tapia, Sebastian Sailer, Olga Valverde, Oscar Garcia-Algar, and Vicente Andreu-Fernández. 2021. "Therapeutic Effects of Catechins in Less Common Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disorders" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2232. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072232

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