It has been established, worldwide, that non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular events account for a high percentage of morbidity and mortality in contemporary societies. Several modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary activities, sleep deprivation, smoking, and unhealthy dietary habits have contributed to this increase. Healthy nutrition in terms of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), rich in fruits, legumes, vegetables, olive oil, herbs, spices, and high fiber intake may contribute to the decrease in this pandemic. The beneficial effects of the MD can be mainly attributed to its numerous components rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the MD may further contribute to the improvement of reproductive health, modify the risk for neurodegenerative diseases, and protect against depression and psychosocial maladjustment. There is also evidence highlighting the impact of healthy nutrition in female people on the composition of the gut microbiota and future metabolic and overall health of their offspring. It is therefore important to highlight the beneficial effects of the MD on metabolic, reproductive, and mental health, while shaping the overall health of future generations. The beneficial effects of MD can be further enhanced by increased physical activity in the context of a well-balanced healthy lifestyle.
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