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Systematic Review

Does Evidence Exist to Blunt Inflammatory Response by Nutraceutical Supplementation during COVID-19 Pandemic? An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Melatonin, and Zinc

1
Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, [PROMISE], University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2
COVID Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, 90127 Palermo, Italy
3
Eurocenter Venalinfa, 63074 San Benedetto del Tronto, Italy
4
Cardiology Unit, State Hospital, Social Security Institute, 20, 47893 Cailungo, San Marino
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosa Casas
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041261
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 12 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
More than one year has passed since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus were reported in Wuhan (China), rapidly evolving into a global pandemic. This infectious disease has become a major public health challenge in the world. Unfortunately, to date, no specific antivirals have been proven to be effective against COVID-19, and although a few vaccines are available, the mortality rate is not decreasing but is still increasing. One therapeutic strategy has been focused on infection prevention and control measures. In this regard, the use of nutraceutical supports may play a role against some aspect of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients, thus representing a strategy to control the worst outcomes of this pandemic. For this reason, we performed an overview including meta-analyses and systematic reviews to assess the association among melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc supplementation and inflammatory markers using three databases, namely, MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. According to the evidence available, an intake of 50,000 IU/month of vitamin D showed efficacy in CRP. An amount of 1 to 2 g per day of vitamin C demonstrated efficacy both in CRP and endothelial function, and a dosage of melatonin ranging from 5 to 25 mg /day showed good evidence of efficacy in CRP, TNF and IL6. A dose of 50 mg/day of elemental zinc supplementation showed positive results in CRP. Based on the data reported in this review, the public health system could consider whether it is possible to supplement the current limited preventive measures through targeted nutraceutical large-scale administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; overview; systematic review; vitamin D; vitamin C; melatonin; zinc; inflammation; nutraceuticals COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; overview; systematic review; vitamin D; vitamin C; melatonin; zinc; inflammation; nutraceuticals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Corrao, S.; Mallaci Bocchio, R.; Lo Monaco, M.; Natoli, G.; Cavezzi, A.; Troiani, E.; Argano, C. Does Evidence Exist to Blunt Inflammatory Response by Nutraceutical Supplementation during COVID-19 Pandemic? An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Melatonin, and Zinc. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1261. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041261

AMA Style

Corrao S, Mallaci Bocchio R, Lo Monaco M, Natoli G, Cavezzi A, Troiani E, Argano C. Does Evidence Exist to Blunt Inflammatory Response by Nutraceutical Supplementation during COVID-19 Pandemic? An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Melatonin, and Zinc. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1261. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041261

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corrao, Salvatore, Raffaella Mallaci Bocchio, Marika Lo Monaco, Giuseppe Natoli, Attilio Cavezzi, Emidio Troiani, and Christiano Argano. 2021. "Does Evidence Exist to Blunt Inflammatory Response by Nutraceutical Supplementation during COVID-19 Pandemic? An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Melatonin, and Zinc" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1261. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041261

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