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Comment published on 21 June 2021, see Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2119.
Article

A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial

1
Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
2
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
3
Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
4
Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
5
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-060, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bernard Venn
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030814
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 2 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health Outcomes)
Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are popular among young, healthy, normal-weight individuals for various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of a ketogenic LCHF diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (primary outcome), LDL cholesterol subfractions and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in the blood of healthy, young, and normal-weight women. The study was a randomized, controlled, feeding trial with crossover design. Twenty-four women were assigned to a 4 week ketogenic LCHF diet (4% carbohydrates; 77% fat; 19% protein) followed by a 4 week National Food Agency recommended control diet (44% carbohydrates; 33% fat; 19% protein), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The LCHF diet increased LDL cholesterol in every woman with a treatment effect of 1.82 mM (p < 0.001). In addition, Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB), small, dense LDL cholesterol as well as large, buoyant LDL cholesterol increased (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). The data suggest that feeding healthy, young, normal-weight women a ketogenic LCHF diet induces a deleterious blood lipid profile. The elevated LDL cholesterol should be a cause for concern in young, healthy, normal-weight women following this kind of LCHF diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; lipoproteins; saturated fatty acids; diet intervention; female; dietary fat cardiovascular disease; lipoproteins; saturated fatty acids; diet intervention; female; dietary fat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burén, J.; Ericsson, M.; Damasceno, N.R.T.; Sjödin, A. A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 814. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030814

AMA Style

Burén J, Ericsson M, Damasceno NRT, Sjödin A. A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):814. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burén, Jonas, Madelene Ericsson, Nágila R.T. Damasceno, and Anna Sjödin. 2021. "A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 814. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030814

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