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Review

Creatine in Health and Disease

1
Human Clinical Research Facility, Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
Physiology of Work and Exercise Response (POWER) Laboratory, Institute of Exercise Physiology and Rehabilitation Science, School of Kinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Central Florida, 12494 University Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Iacone Roberto
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020447
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creatine Supplementation for Health and Clinical Diseases)
Although creatine has been mostly studied as an ergogenic aid for exercise, training, and sport, several health and potential therapeutic benefits have been reported. This is because creatine plays a critical role in cellular metabolism, particularly during metabolically stressed states, and limitations in the ability to transport and/or store creatine can impair metabolism. Moreover, increasing availability of creatine in tissue may enhance cellular metabolism and thereby lessen the severity of injury and/or disease conditions, particularly when oxygen availability is compromised. This systematic review assesses the peer-reviewed scientific and medical evidence related to creatine’s role in promoting general health as we age and how creatine supplementation has been used as a nutritional strategy to help individuals recover from injury and/or manage chronic disease. Additionally, it provides reasonable conclusions about the role of creatine on health and disease based on current scientific evidence. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that creatine supplementation has several health and therapeutic benefits throughout the lifespan. View Full-Text
Keywords: ergogenic aids; cellular metabolism; phosphagens; sarcopenia; cognition; diabetes; creatine synthesis deficiencies; concussion; traumatic brain injury; spinal cord injury; muscle atrophy; rehabilitation; pregnancy; immunity; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; anticancer ergogenic aids; cellular metabolism; phosphagens; sarcopenia; cognition; diabetes; creatine synthesis deficiencies; concussion; traumatic brain injury; spinal cord injury; muscle atrophy; rehabilitation; pregnancy; immunity; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; anticancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Kreider, R.B.; Stout, J.R. Creatine in Health and Disease. Nutrients 2021, 13, 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020447

AMA Style

Kreider RB, Stout JR. Creatine in Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020447

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kreider, Richard B., and Jeffery R. Stout. 2021. "Creatine in Health and Disease" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020447

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