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Article

Enhanced Eating Competence Is Associated with Improved Diet Quality and Cardiometabolic Profile in Finnish Adults with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

1
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
2
Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, 70029 Kuopio, Finland
3
Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
4
Collaborative Care Systems Finland, 00270 Helsinki, Finland
5
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., 02044 Espoo, Finland
6
Department of Public Health and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
7
Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
8
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, 70029 Kuopio, Finland
9
Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, 70100 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors are joint senior authors on this work.
Academic Editor: Maria Luz Fernandez
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114030
Received: 19 September 2021 / Revised: 2 November 2021 / Accepted: 4 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
Eating competence (EC) is characterized by positive attitudes towards food and eating, having regular meals, eating a variety of foods, and internally regulated eating. We investigated the associations of changes in EC with changes in lifestyle, anthropometrics and biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism in 2291 adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes as part of the StopDia study conducted in primary healthcare. EC and diet quality were assessed with validated digital questionnaires. During the intervention, the participants received either (1) the digital lifestyle intervention, (2) the combined digital and face-to-face group-based lifestyle intervention, or (3) standard care. EC increased among the participants independent of the intervention type. Increase in EC was associated with an increase in diet quality, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and with a decrease in body mass index and waist circumference, regardless of baseline EC. Of the subdomains of EC, the contextual skills, food acceptance and eating attitudes were associated with various of these changes. Our results thus suggest that EC could be a potential target in lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the cardiometabolic health of people at type 2 diabetes risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: adiposity; diet; diet quality; eating behavior; glucose metabolism; health care; lifestyle; lipid metabolism; obesity; overweight; prevention; type 2 diabetes adiposity; diet; diet quality; eating behavior; glucose metabolism; health care; lifestyle; lipid metabolism; obesity; overweight; prevention; type 2 diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aittola, K.; Karhunen, L.; Männikkö, R.; Järvelä-Reijonen, E.; Mikkonen, S.; Absetz, P.; Kolehmainen, M.; Schwab, U.; Harjumaa, M.; Lindström, J.; Lakka, T.; Tilles-Tirkkonen, T.; Pihlajamäki, J. Enhanced Eating Competence Is Associated with Improved Diet Quality and Cardiometabolic Profile in Finnish Adults with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4030. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114030

AMA Style

Aittola K, Karhunen L, Männikkö R, Järvelä-Reijonen E, Mikkonen S, Absetz P, Kolehmainen M, Schwab U, Harjumaa M, Lindström J, Lakka T, Tilles-Tirkkonen T, Pihlajamäki J. Enhanced Eating Competence Is Associated with Improved Diet Quality and Cardiometabolic Profile in Finnish Adults with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4030. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aittola, Kirsikka, Leila Karhunen, Reija Männikkö, Elina Järvelä-Reijonen, Santtu Mikkonen, Pilvikki Absetz, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Ursula Schwab, Marja Harjumaa, Jaana Lindström, Timo Lakka, Tanja Tilles-Tirkkonen, and Jussi Pihlajamäki. 2021. "Enhanced Eating Competence Is Associated with Improved Diet Quality and Cardiometabolic Profile in Finnish Adults with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4030. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114030

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