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Article

Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study

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Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
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Network Aging Research (NAR), Heidelberg University, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
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Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, 50923 Cologne, Germany
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Cancer Prevention Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tyler Barker
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113986
Received: 27 September 2021 / Revised: 1 November 2021 / Accepted: 5 November 2021 / Published: 9 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature on RCTs assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cancer mortality, on increases of vitamin D levels by either supplementation or food fortification, and on costs of supplementation or fortification. Then, we derived expected effects on total cancer mortality and related costs and savings from potential implementation of vitamin D food fortification in Germany and compared the results to those for supplementation. In RCTs with vitamin D supplementation in average doses of 820–2000 IU per day, serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D increased by 15–30 nmol/L, respectively. Studies on food fortification found increases by 10–42 nmol/L, thus largely in the range of increases previously demonstrated by supplementation. Fortification is estimated to be considerably less expensive than supplementation. It might be similarly effective as supplementation in reducing cancer mortality and might even achieve such reduction at substantially larger net savings. Although vitamin D overdoses are unlikely in food fortification programs, implementation should be accompanied by a study monitoring the frequency of potentially occurring adverse effects by overdoses, such as hypercalcemia. Future studies on effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and fortification are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; fortification; cancer mortality; prevention; review vitamin D; fortification; cancer mortality; prevention; review
MDPI and ACS Style

Niedermaier, T.; Gredner, T.; Kuznia, S.; Schöttker, B.; Mons, U.; Brenner, H. Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3986. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113986

AMA Style

Niedermaier T, Gredner T, Kuznia S, Schöttker B, Mons U, Brenner H. Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):3986. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113986

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niedermaier, Tobias, Thomas Gredner, Sabine Kuznia, Ben Schöttker, Ute Mons, and Hermann Brenner. 2021. "Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 3986. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113986

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