nutrients-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Vitamins and Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2023) | Viewed by 84134

Special Issue Editor

1. Sports Medicine Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA
2. Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
3. Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Interests: anterior cruciate ligament injury; osteoarthritis; cachexia; vitamin D; cytokines; systemic inflammation; precision nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamins are essential compounds involved in fundamental functions of the body. Vitamins differ in physiological functions and are broadly classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble. The purpose of this Special Issue, “Vitamins and Human Health,” is to provide cutting-edge original research and review articles regarding the diverse properties of various vitamins in disease and healthy living conditions. This Special Issue will discuss the potential role of vitamins on health and disease etiology, progression, treatment, and the recovery from injury and/or surgery. Articles eloquently discussing the various or new determinants of endogenous vitamin levels in disease and non-disease related conditions are encouraged. Submissions discussing the influence of a vitamin or vitamins on physical performance and survival are welcome.

Dr. Tyler Barker
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vitamin C
  • vitamin B complex
  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E

Published Papers (19 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

4 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews and Original Research
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132888 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Vitamins are a group of organic compounds essential to physiological functions in the body [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

10 pages, 2042 KiB  
Article
Population Status of Vitamin B12 Values in the General Population and in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes, in Southwestern Colombia
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102357 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Vitamin B12 (B12) is necessary for the proper functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although there is no exact definition for B12 levels, a value of 200 pg/mL is compatible with deficiency, 200–299 pg/mL is considered borderline, and 300 pg/mL is [...] Read more.
Vitamin B12 (B12) is necessary for the proper functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although there is no exact definition for B12 levels, a value of 200 pg/mL is compatible with deficiency, 200–299 pg/mL is considered borderline, and 300 pg/mL is considered normal. In population studies, the prevalence of B12 deficiency ranges between 2.9% and 35%. Furthermore, many medications, such as metformin [for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)], can cause B12 deficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine the population status of B12 in southwestern Colombia (and the status of B12 in subjects with T2DM). In the total population (participants with and without T2DM), the prevalence of B12 deficiency was 17.8%; that of borderline was 19.3%; and that of normal levels was 62.9%. The prevalence of deficiency increased with age and was significantly higher in those aged ≥60 years (p = 0.000). In T2DM subjects, the prevalence of deficiency was significantly higher concerning those without T2DM (p = 0.002) and was significantly higher in those who received >1 gm/day of metformin (p = 0.001). Thus, the prevalence of deficiency and borderline levels of B12 in our population was high, particularly in those >60 years of age. B12 deficiency was significantly higher in individuals with T2DM than in individuals without T2DM, especially among those receiving high doses of metformin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
Quality Control of the Dietary Supplements Containing Selected Fat-Soluble Vitamins D and K
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071650 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
Nowadays, the most important aspect related to the use of dietary supplements seems to be their quality. There are many reports indicating their insufficient quality primarily related to a much lower content of ingredients or even their absence. Currently, there is an increasing [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the most important aspect related to the use of dietary supplements seems to be their quality. There are many reports indicating their insufficient quality primarily related to a much lower content of ingredients or even their absence. Currently, there is an increasing interest in supplementing the diet with various kinds of supplements, including those containing combinations of vitamins and minerals, among which preparations with vitamin D are very popular. This is probably due to the reduced production of this vitamin, depending on the amount of time spent in the sun and the use of UV-filters. Very often, preparations with cholecalciferol also contain vitamin K2, which is associated with their synergistic effect. Therefore, the question arises about the effectiveness of supplementation, which may be correlated with the quality of commonly available dietary supplements. In the presented work, it was undertaken to develop optimal conditions for the qualitative and quantitative determination of vitamins D2, D3 and K2 in dietary supplements available in various forms, using thin-layer chromatography with densitometric detection. As a result, the methodology for analyzing the content of three vitamins from various matrices was developed, optimized and validated in accordance with ICH requirements. The obtained results allow us to conclude that it is reliable and meets the requirements for analytical procedures used in the analysis of medicinal products. Based on the results obtained for examined dietary supplements, it can be stated that the amount of vitamin D3 in analyzed products is basically similar to that declared by the manufacturer, in contrast to vitamin K2, the content of which is diverse. The developed methodology seems to be a good, low-cost and quick way to control the quality of dietary supplements so that they can supplement the human diet and be a wholesome product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Protection of Vitamin C on Oxidative Damage Caused by Long-Term Excess Iodine Exposure in Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245245 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Vitamin C was reported to be able to protect against oxidative damage due to its reducibility. 120 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 × 2 groups, including normal iodine (NI), high iodine (HI), low vitamin C (HI + LC), and high vitamin [...] Read more.
Vitamin C was reported to be able to protect against oxidative damage due to its reducibility. 120 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 × 2 groups, including normal iodine (NI), high iodine (HI), low vitamin C (HI + LC), and high vitamin C (HI + HC); potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate (KIO3) were commonly used as additives for iodized salt, so every group was also divided into KI and KIO3 groups. After 6 months’ feed, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and Lipid Peroxide (MDA) content in serum, liver, kidney, brain, thyroid and lens were determined. In serum, for males, long-term excess iodine intake caused oxidative damage; in the liver, male rats in the HI + LC group had the highest MDA content, which showed that low-dose vitamin C might promote oxidative damage; in kidneys, the MDA content in the HI and HI + LC groups of females was higher; in the brain, high-dose vitamin C could increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which was decreased by high iodine intake, and it also decreased MDA content; in the thyroid, for KIO3, the activity of SOD in the HI group was lower than NI and HI + LC; in the lens, the MDA content in females was lower than males. Long-term excess iodine exposure caused oxidative damage and showed sex difference, and vitamin C had a protective effect on it, especially for high-dose vitamin C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
No Effect of Vitamin C Administration on Neutrophil Recovery in Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Myeloma or Lymphoma: A Blinded, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224784 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Vitamin C is an important micronutrient for various immune cells. It increases phagocytic cell function and is necessary for T and natural killer (NK) cell development. Patients in need of an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are often vitamin C-depleted. We therefore [...] Read more.
Vitamin C is an important micronutrient for various immune cells. It increases phagocytic cell function and is necessary for T and natural killer (NK) cell development. Patients in need of an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are often vitamin C-depleted. We therefore hypothesized that vitamin C supplementation could improve immune recovery in autologous HSCT patients. This blinded, placebo-controlled trial included 44 patients randomized to receive vitamin C or a placebo. The following outcome measures used were clinical and immunological parameters, among others: time to neutrophil recovery, serum, and intracellular vitamin C values. Twenty-one patients received vitamin C, and 23 received a placebo. The time to neutrophil recovery did not differ between the two groups at 11.2 days (p = 0.96). There were no differences in hospitalization time (19.7 vs. 19.1 days, p = 0.80), the incidence of neutropenic fever (57% vs. 78%, p = 0.20), or 3-month overall survival (90.5% vs. 100%, p = 0.13). Bacteremia seemed to occur less in the vitamin C group (10% vs. 35%, p = 0.07). Our study shows no benefit from vitamin C supplementation on neutrophil recovery and hospitalization, despite possible lower rates of bacteremia in the vitamin C group. Therefore, we do not advise vitamin C supplementation in this treatment group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D and Chronic Diseases among First-Generation Immigrants: A Large-Scale Study Using Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091760 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Background: Nearly 22% of the Canadian population are first-generation immigrants. We investigated immigrants’ health status and health deterioration over time in terms of the prevalence of chronic diseases (CDs) and their relationship to vitD status. Methods: We used cycles three (2012–2013) and four [...] Read more.
Background: Nearly 22% of the Canadian population are first-generation immigrants. We investigated immigrants’ health status and health deterioration over time in terms of the prevalence of chronic diseases (CDs) and their relationship to vitD status. Methods: We used cycles three (2012–2013) and four (2014–2015) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. These data contained unique health information and direct physical/blood measures, including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D). Indicators of health status and deterioration were the prevalence of CDs diagnosed by healthcare professionals, self-reported general and mental health, and CD-related biomarkers. Results: The data (n = 11,579) included immigrants from more than 153 countries. Immigrants were healthier than non-immigrants for most health status measures. The prevalence of CDs was higher among those who migrated to Canada aged ≥ 18 years. A longer time in Canada after immigration was associated with a higher risk for CDs. The mean S-25(OH)D was lower among immigrants, higher among patients with CDs, and inversely associated with glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, immunoglobulin E, serum ferritin, and blood hemoglobin. After adjusting for covariates, no association was found between S-25(OH)D and the prevalence of CDs. Conclusions: Lower levels of accumulated S-25(OH)D among immigrants may impact their health profile in terms of CD-related biomarkers, which partially explains immigrants’ health deterioration over time. We recommend further longitudinal research to investigate immigrants’ vitD and health deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
20 pages, 3003 KiB  
Article
Safety Data in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases during Treatment with High Doses of Vitamin D3 According to the “Coimbra Protocol”
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081575 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 19257
Abstract
Background: In 2013, the group of Cicero Coimbra, Brazil, reported the clinical efficacy of high doses of vitamin D3 in patients suffering from autoimmune skin disorders (“Coimbra protocol”, CP). However, hypercalcemia and the subsequent impaired renal function may be major concerns raised against [...] Read more.
Background: In 2013, the group of Cicero Coimbra, Brazil, reported the clinical efficacy of high doses of vitamin D3 in patients suffering from autoimmune skin disorders (“Coimbra protocol”, CP). However, hypercalcemia and the subsequent impaired renal function may be major concerns raised against this protocol. Methods: We report for the first time for a broad spectrum of autoimmune diseases in 319 patients (mean age (±SD) 43.3 ± 14.6 years, 65.5% female, 34.5% male) safety data for high doses of orally applied vitamin D3 (treatment period: up to 3.5 years) accompanied by a strict low-calcium diet and regular daily fluid intake of at least 2.5 L. Results: Mean vitamin D3 dose was 35,291 ± 21,791 IU per day. The measurement of more than 6100 single relevant laboratory parameters showed all mean values (±SD) within the normal range for total serum calcium (2.4 ± 0.1 mmol/L), serum creatinine (0.8 ± 0.2 mg/dL), serum creatinine associated estimated GFR (92.5 ± 17.3 mL/min), serum cystatin C (0.88 ± 0.19 mg/L), serum TSH (1.8 ± 1 mIU/L), and for 24 h urinary calcium secretion (6.9 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h). We found a very weak relationship between the dosage of oral vitamin D3 and the subsequent calcium levels, both in serum and in urinary excretion over 24 h, respectively. Conclusions: Our data show the reliable safety of the CP in autoimmune patients under appropriate supervision by experienced physicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113986 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4322
Abstract
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature [...] Read more.
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature on RCTs assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cancer mortality, on increases of vitamin D levels by either supplementation or food fortification, and on costs of supplementation or fortification. Then, we derived expected effects on total cancer mortality and related costs and savings from potential implementation of vitamin D food fortification in Germany and compared the results to those for supplementation. In RCTs with vitamin D supplementation in average doses of 820–2000 IU per day, serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D increased by 15–30 nmol/L, respectively. Studies on food fortification found increases by 10–42 nmol/L, thus largely in the range of increases previously demonstrated by supplementation. Fortification is estimated to be considerably less expensive than supplementation. It might be similarly effective as supplementation in reducing cancer mortality and might even achieve such reduction at substantially larger net savings. Although vitamin D overdoses are unlikely in food fortification programs, implementation should be accompanied by a study monitoring the frequency of potentially occurring adverse effects by overdoses, such as hypercalcemia. Future studies on effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and fortification are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
14 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Determinants of Vitamin D-Binding Protein, Total, “Non-Bioavailable”, Bioavailable, and Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Older Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113982 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Background: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (“total 25 OH(D)”) is the most commonly used indicator of vitamin D status. However, 25(OH)D is mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) or albumin in blood, and it has been suggested that the remaining bioavailable [...] Read more.
Background: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (“total 25 OH(D)”) is the most commonly used indicator of vitamin D status. However, 25(OH)D is mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) or albumin in blood, and it has been suggested that the remaining bioavailable or free 25(OH)D may be more relevant for vitamin D associated health outcomes. We aimed to explore distributions and determinants of VDBP, total, bioavailable, complementary “non-bioavailable”, and free 25(OH)D in a large cohort of older adults in Germany. Methods: total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin concentrations were measured in blood samples of 5899 men and women aged 50–75 years and used to calculate bioavailable (and complementary “non-bioavailable”) and free 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations of potential determinants of the various vitamin D biomarkers. Results: mean concentrations of VDBP, total, non-bioavailable, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D were 323.6 µg/mL, 49.8 nmol/L, 43.4 nmol/L, 2.5 ng/mL, and 5.7 pg/mL, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for all markers, with peak values in spring for VDBP and in summer for total, non-bioavailable, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D. Consistent inverse associations were seen with age and body mass index for all markers, but divergent associations were seen with C-reactive protein. Strong variations by VDBP genotypes were seen for bioavailable and free 25(OH)D, and, in opposite direction for non-bioavailable 25(OH)D. Conclusion: commonalities and differences in determinants of various markers of vitamin D status were observed, which may help to enable a better understanding of their potential role for various vitamin D related health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

11 pages, 449 KiB  
Review
Clinical Outcomes of the Deleterious Effects of Aluminum on Neuro-Cognition, Inflammation, and Health: A Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092221 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Introduction: In the scenario of metal toxicity, aluminum (Al) stands out as a ubiquitous type of metal that can be combined with other elements and form different compounds. Al is widely used daily as an adjuvant in vaccines, antacids, food additives (as components [...] Read more.
Introduction: In the scenario of metal toxicity, aluminum (Al) stands out as a ubiquitous type of metal that can be combined with other elements and form different compounds. Al is widely used daily as an adjuvant in vaccines, antacids, food additives (as components of AI-containing food additives), skin care products, cosmetics, and kitchenware, and can be an element or contaminant present in our daily life. Objective: To present a review of the main deleterious effects of Al on human health. Methods: The search was carried out from September 2022 to February 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases, using scientific articles from 2012 to 2023. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument, and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results and Conclusions: A total of 115 files were search returned. Further, 95 articles were evaluated, and 44 were included in this review. Based on the results, measuring Al’s relevance to health is essential in medicine. Several studies have demonstrated clinical outcomes and metabolic alterations with Al exposure. The tolerable weekly intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of 1 mg Al/kg body weight can be achieved through dietary exposure alone. Proven neurotoxicity in humans is the critical adverse effect of Al. A carcinogenic effect of Al has not been proven so far. Preventive medicine advocates that exposure to Al should be kept as low as possible. Chelating agents, such as calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and deferoxamine, are options for acute poisoning, and monomethysilanetriol supplementation may be a long-term strategy with chelation potential. Further studies are needed to assess the impacts of Al on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 347 KiB  
Review
Effects of Vitamin D on Cardiovascular Risk and Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030769 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5620
Abstract
Introduction: Vitamin D has been primarily studied as an important factor influencing bone and calcium metabolism. Metabolites of vitamin D are essential for whole-body calcium homeostasis, maintaining serum calcium levels within a narrow range by regulating this process in the bones and gut. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Vitamin D has been primarily studied as an important factor influencing bone and calcium metabolism. Metabolites of vitamin D are essential for whole-body calcium homeostasis, maintaining serum calcium levels within a narrow range by regulating this process in the bones and gut. Nevertheless, its deficiency is also related to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular disease (CVD)—with increased visceral adipose tissue and body mass index (BMI), as well as the frequently associated hypercholesterolemia. It has been reported that vitamin D levels are inversely related to cardiovascular (CV) risk in men and women. However, the effects of vitamin D on distinct outcomes in women and the dose of supplementation needed to improve clinical endpoints have not been established. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in CVD and favors the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines from the immune system. In addition, 25(OH)D can be primarily converted into calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D]) in the kidneys through the action of the 1-α-hydroxylase enzyme. Calcitriol, through the downregulation mechanism of renin expression, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, and its interaction with the vitamin D receptor, can bring CV benefits. The calcitriol form also lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels by indirectly causing a reduction in aldosterone and mineralocorticoid synthesis. Elevated plasma aldosterone is related to endothelial dysfunction and CVD in hypovitaminosis D status. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation may benefit certain risk groups, as it improves metabolic variables, reducing oxidative stress and CV outcomes. More studies are needed to define interventions with vitamin D in men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
21 pages, 1082 KiB  
Review
Dietary Vitamin B Complex: Orchestration in Human Nutrition throughout Life with Sex Differences
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 3940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14193940 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4664
Abstract
The importance of B complex vitamins starts early in the human life cycle and continues across its different stages. At the same time, numerous reports have emphasized the critical role of adequate B complex intake. Most studies examined such issues concerning a specific [...] Read more.
The importance of B complex vitamins starts early in the human life cycle and continues across its different stages. At the same time, numerous reports have emphasized the critical role of adequate B complex intake. Most studies examined such issues concerning a specific vitamin B or life stage, with the majority reporting the effect of either excess or deficiency. Deep insight into the orchestration of the eight different B vitamins requirements is reviewed across the human life cycle, beginning from fertility and pregnancy and reaching adulthood and senility, emphasizing interactions among them and underlying action mechanisms. The effect of sex is also reviewed for each vitamin at each life stage to highlight the different daily requirements and/or outcomes. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and folic acid are crucial for maternal and fetal health. During infancy and childhood, B vitamins are integrated with physical and psychological development that have a pivotal impact on one’s overall health in adolescence and adulthood. A higher intake of B vitamins in the elderly is also associated with preventing some aging problems, especially those related to inflammation. All supplementation should be carefully monitored to avoid toxicity and hypervitaminosis. More research should be invested in studying each vitamin individually concerning nutritional disparities in each life stage, with extensive attention paid to cultural differences and lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 2049 KiB  
Review
Women Taking a Folic Acid Supplement in Countries with Mandatory Food Fortification Programs May Be Exceeding the Upper Tolerable Limit of Folic Acid: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132715 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4590
Abstract
Background: In preconception and pregnancy, women are encouraged to take folic acid-based supplements over and above food intake. The upper tolerable limit of folic acid is 1000 mcg per day; however, this level was determined to avoid masking a vitamin B12 deficiency and [...] Read more.
Background: In preconception and pregnancy, women are encouraged to take folic acid-based supplements over and above food intake. The upper tolerable limit of folic acid is 1000 mcg per day; however, this level was determined to avoid masking a vitamin B12 deficiency and not based on folic acid bioavailability and metabolism. This review’s aim is to assess the total all-source intake of folate in women of childbearing age and in pregnancy in high-income countries with folate food fortification programs. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in five databases to find studies published since 1998 that reported folate and folic acid intake in countries with a mandatory fortification policy. Results: Women of childbearing age do not receive sufficient folate intake from food sources alone even when consuming fortified food products; however, almost all women taking a folic acid-based supplement exceed the upper tolerable limit of folic acid intake. Conclusions: Folic acid supplement recommendations and the upper tolerable limit of 1000 mcg set by policy makers warrant careful review in light of potential adverse effects of exceeding the upper tolerable limit on folic acid absorption and metabolism, and subsequent impacts on women’s health during their childbearing years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 289 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D as a Potential Player in Immunologic Control over Multiple Myeloma Cells: Implications for Adjuvant Therapies
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091802 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with multifactorial etiology. One of the underlying mechanisms is immune system dysregulation. Immunotherapy is being widely introduced into various MM treatment protocols. Nevertheless, little is known about boosting the immune system with supportive treatment. Although [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with multifactorial etiology. One of the underlying mechanisms is immune system dysregulation. Immunotherapy is being widely introduced into various MM treatment protocols. Nevertheless, little is known about boosting the immune system with supportive treatment. Although classical actions of vitamin D (VD) are very well established, their non-classical actions related to the modulation of the immune system in MM are still a subject of ongoing research. In this literature review, we intend to summarize research conducted on VD and MM, both in vitro and in vivo, with particular emphasis on immune system modulation, the induction of the differentiation of malignant MM cells, synergic activity with anti-MM drugs, and MM-associated peripheral neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
23 pages, 2756 KiB  
Review
Vitamins as Possible Cancer Biomarkers: Significance and Limitations
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113914 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4228
Abstract
The Western-style diet, which is common in developed countries and spreading into developing countries, is unbalanced in many respects. For instance, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western food [...] Read more.
The Western-style diet, which is common in developed countries and spreading into developing countries, is unbalanced in many respects. For instance, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western food (causing what is known as ‘hidden hunger’), whereas some others (such as phosphorus) are added beyond the daily allowance. This imbalance in micronutrients can induce cellular damage that can increase the risk of cancer. Interestingly, there is a large body of evidence suggesting a strong correlation between vitamin intake as well as vitamin blood concentrations with the occurrence of certain types of cancer. The direction of association between the concentration of a given vitamin and cancer risk is tumor specific. The present review summarized the literature regarding vitamins and cancer risk to assess whether these could be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers, thus confirming their potential as biomarkers. Despite many studies that highlight the importance of monitoring vitamin blood or tissue concentrations in cancer patients and demonstrate the link between vitamin intake and cancer risk, there is still an urgent need for more data to assess the effectiveness of vitamins as biomarkers in the context of cancer. Therefore, this review aims to provide a solid basis to support further studies on this promising topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

13 pages, 2697 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040951 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Vitamin D is a nutrient potentially beneficial in the treatment of depression. The study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the studies assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on depression within Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). The systematic review was prepared [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a nutrient potentially beneficial in the treatment of depression. The study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the studies assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on depression within Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). The systematic review was prepared on the basis of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (CRD42020155779). The peer-reviewed studies available within PubMed or Web of Science databases until September 2021 were taken into account. The number of screened records was 8514, and 8 records were included. Two independent researchers conducted screening, including, reporting, and risk of bias assessment using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. The included studies presented a population of patients with major depressive disorders or general depression, as well as bipolar depression or postpartum depression. The majority of included studies were conducted for 8 weeks or 12 weeks, while one study was conducted for 6 months. Within the large number of included studies, a daily dose of 1500 IU, 1600 IU, or 2800 IU was applied, while within some studies, a vitamin D dose of 50,000 IU was applied weekly or biweekly. Among applied psychological measures of depression, there were various tools. In spite of the fact that the majority of included studies (five studies) supported the positive effect of vitamin D supplementation for the psychological measure of depression, for three studies the positive influence was not supported. A medium risk of bias was indicated for six studies, while a high risk of bias was defined for only two studies, due to deviations from the intended interventions and in measurement of the outcome, as well as for one study, also arising from the randomization process and due to missing outcome data. Based on conducted assessment, it should be emphasized that there are only four studies supporting the positive influence of vitamin D supplementation for the psychological measure of depression of the medium risk of bias, while two studies of a medium risk of bias did not support it. Taking this into account, the conducted systematic review is not a strong confirmation of the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 745 KiB  
Systematic Review
What Are the Effects of Vitamin A Oral Supplementation in the Prevention and Management of Viral Infections? A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194081 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is associated with increased host susceptibility to infections, but evidence on its role in the prevention and management of viral infections is still lacking. This review aimed at summarizing the effects of VA supplementation against viral infections to support [...] Read more.
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is associated with increased host susceptibility to infections, but evidence on its role in the prevention and management of viral infections is still lacking. This review aimed at summarizing the effects of VA supplementation against viral infections to support clinicians in evaluating supplemental treatments. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. Randomized clinical trials comparing the direct effects of VA oral supplementation in any form vs. placebo or standard of care in the prevention and/or management of confirmed viral infections in people of any age were included. A narrative synthesis of the results was performed. The revised Cochrane Risk-Of-Bias tool was used to assess quality. Overall, 40 articles of heterogeneous quality were included. We found data on infections sustained by Retroviridae (n = 17), Caliciviradae (n = 2), Flaviviridae (n = 1), Papillomaviridae (n = 3), Pneumoviridae (n = 4), and Paramyxoviridae (n = 13). Studies were published between 1987 and 2017 and mostly conducted in Africa. The findings were heterogeneous across and within viral families regarding virological, immunological, and biological response, and no meaningful results were found in the prevention of viral infections. For a few diseases, VA-supplemented individuals had a better prognosis and improved outcomes, including clearance of HPV lesions or reduction in some measles-related complications. The effects of VA oral supplementation seem encouraging in relation to the management of a few viral infections. Difference in populations considered, variety in recruitment and treatment protocols might explain the heterogeneity of the results. Further investigations are needed to better identify the benefits of VA administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 823 KiB  
Systematic Review
Vitamin Supplementation and Dementia: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051033 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 11913
Abstract
Background: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive cognitive impairment that interferes with independent function in daily activities. Symptoms of dementia depend on its cause and vary greatly between individuals. There is extensive evidence supporting a relationship between diet and cognitive functions. This [...] Read more.
Background: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive cognitive impairment that interferes with independent function in daily activities. Symptoms of dementia depend on its cause and vary greatly between individuals. There is extensive evidence supporting a relationship between diet and cognitive functions. This systematic review studies the efficacy of using vitamin supplements in the diet as a solution to nutritional deficiencies and the prevention of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Methods: An intensive search of different databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL) was performed. Articles that were published between 2011 and November 2021 were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy. This systematic review has been conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Results: Folic acid supplementation proved to have better outcomes on cognitive tests than their respective control groups. The combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 showed some discrepancies between studies. Thiamine as supplementation did not only prove to have a positive impact on cognitive performance when given alone but also when given in combination with folic acid. Regarding vitamin D supplementation, the results observed were not so encouraging. A concomitant supplementation of low-dose vitamin E and vitamin C was also not associated with an improvement of cognitive function. Conclusions: The findings of this systematic review suggest that supplementation of B Complex vitamins, especially folic acid, may have a positive effect on delaying and preventing the risk of cognitive decline. Ascorbic acid and a high dose of vitamin E, when given separately, also showed positive effects on cognitive performance, but there is not sufficient evidence to support their use. The results of vitamin D supplementation trials are not conclusive in assessing the potential benefits that vitamin D might have on cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 588 KiB  
Systematic Review
Vitamin D Supplementation and Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124207 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3636
Abstract
Vitamin D has a promising role in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, and it has been found to be beneficial for patients’ mental health, which is reduced in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the [...] Read more.
Vitamin D has a promising role in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, and it has been found to be beneficial for patients’ mental health, which is reduced in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on mental health in MS patients. The systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020155779) and it was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA guidelines. The search procedure was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science databases and it included studies published up until September 2021. Six studies were included in the systematic review. The risk of bias was analyzed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Within the included studies, there were two studies randomized against placebo and four other prospective studies. The studies presented vitamin D interventions randomized against placebo or not randomized, while supplementation was applied for various durations—from 4 weeks to 12 months, or the studies compared patients who applied vitamin D supplementation and those who did not apply it and verified the effect of the supplementation after a number of years. The mental health outcomes that were assessed included quality of life, depression/depressive symptoms, and fatigue as an additional element. The majority of studies supported the positive influence of vitamin D on the mental health of MS patients, including the study characterized as having the highest quality (randomized against placebo with the highest NOS score). All the studies that assessed the quality of life indicated the positive influence of vitamin D while the studies that did not find a positive influence of vitamin D were conducted for depression/depressive symptoms. In spite of the fact that only a small number of studies have been conducted so far, and only two studies were randomized against a placebo, some conclusions may be formulated. The systematic review allowed us to conclude that there may be a positive effect of vitamin D supplementation in MS patients, which was stated in all of the studies analyzing quality of life, as well as in one study analyzing depressive symptoms. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is common in MS patients, and the potential positive influence of supplementation on the quality of life, supplementation should be applied at least in doses that cover the recommended intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop