Special Issue "Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2023 | Viewed by 12974

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tyler Barker
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Precision Genomics, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
2. Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
3. Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Interests: osteoarthritis; cachexia; vitamin D; cytokines; systemic inflammation; precision medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamins are essential compounds involved in fundamental functions of the body. Vitamins differ in physiological functions and are broadly classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble. The purpose of this Special Issue, “Vitamins and Human Health,” is to provide cutting-edge original research and review articles regarding the diverse properties of various vitamins in disease and healthy living conditions. This Special Issue will discuss the potential role of vitamins on health and disease etiology, progression, treatment, and the recovery from injury and/or surgery. Articles eloquently discussing the various or new determinants of endogenous vitamin levels in disease and non-disease related conditions are encouraged. Submissions discussing the influence of a vitamin or vitamins on physical performance and survival are welcome.

Dr. Tyler Barker
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • vitamin C
  • vitamin B complex
  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Vitamin D and Chronic Diseases among First-Generation Immigrants: A Large-Scale Study Using Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091760 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Background: Nearly 22% of the Canadian population are first-generation immigrants. We investigated immigrants’ health status and health deterioration over time in terms of the prevalence of chronic diseases (CDs) and their relationship to vitD status. Methods: We used cycles three (2012–2013) and four [...] Read more.
Background: Nearly 22% of the Canadian population are first-generation immigrants. We investigated immigrants’ health status and health deterioration over time in terms of the prevalence of chronic diseases (CDs) and their relationship to vitD status. Methods: We used cycles three (2012–2013) and four (2014–2015) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. These data contained unique health information and direct physical/blood measures, including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D). Indicators of health status and deterioration were the prevalence of CDs diagnosed by healthcare professionals, self-reported general and mental health, and CD-related biomarkers. Results: The data (n = 11,579) included immigrants from more than 153 countries. Immigrants were healthier than non-immigrants for most health status measures. The prevalence of CDs was higher among those who migrated to Canada aged ≥ 18 years. A longer time in Canada after immigration was associated with a higher risk for CDs. The mean S-25(OH)D was lower among immigrants, higher among patients with CDs, and inversely associated with glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, immunoglobulin E, serum ferritin, and blood hemoglobin. After adjusting for covariates, no association was found between S-25(OH)D and the prevalence of CDs. Conclusions: Lower levels of accumulated S-25(OH)D among immigrants may impact their health profile in terms of CD-related biomarkers, which partially explains immigrants’ health deterioration over time. We recommend further longitudinal research to investigate immigrants’ vitD and health deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
Article
Safety Data in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases during Treatment with High Doses of Vitamin D3 According to the “Coimbra Protocol”
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081575 - 10 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3125
Abstract
Background: In 2013, the group of Cicero Coimbra, Brazil, reported the clinical efficacy of high doses of vitamin D3 in patients suffering from autoimmune skin disorders (“Coimbra protocol”, CP). However, hypercalcemia and the subsequent impaired renal function may be major concerns raised against [...] Read more.
Background: In 2013, the group of Cicero Coimbra, Brazil, reported the clinical efficacy of high doses of vitamin D3 in patients suffering from autoimmune skin disorders (“Coimbra protocol”, CP). However, hypercalcemia and the subsequent impaired renal function may be major concerns raised against this protocol. Methods: We report for the first time for a broad spectrum of autoimmune diseases in 319 patients (mean age (±SD) 43.3 ± 14.6 years, 65.5% female, 34.5% male) safety data for high doses of orally applied vitamin D3 (treatment period: up to 3.5 years) accompanied by a strict low-calcium diet and regular daily fluid intake of at least 2.5 L. Results: Mean vitamin D3 dose was 35,291 ± 21,791 IU per day. The measurement of more than 6100 single relevant laboratory parameters showed all mean values (±SD) within the normal range for total serum calcium (2.4 ± 0.1 mmol/L), serum creatinine (0.8 ± 0.2 mg/dL), serum creatinine associated estimated GFR (92.5 ± 17.3 mL/min), serum cystatin C (0.88 ± 0.19 mg/L), serum TSH (1.8 ± 1 mIU/L), and for 24 h urinary calcium secretion (6.9 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h). We found a very weak relationship between the dosage of oral vitamin D3 and the subsequent calcium levels, both in serum and in urinary excretion over 24 h, respectively. Conclusions: Our data show the reliable safety of the CP in autoimmune patients under appropriate supervision by experienced physicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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Article
Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113986 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature [...] Read more.
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature on RCTs assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cancer mortality, on increases of vitamin D levels by either supplementation or food fortification, and on costs of supplementation or fortification. Then, we derived expected effects on total cancer mortality and related costs and savings from potential implementation of vitamin D food fortification in Germany and compared the results to those for supplementation. In RCTs with vitamin D supplementation in average doses of 820–2000 IU per day, serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D increased by 15–30 nmol/L, respectively. Studies on food fortification found increases by 10–42 nmol/L, thus largely in the range of increases previously demonstrated by supplementation. Fortification is estimated to be considerably less expensive than supplementation. It might be similarly effective as supplementation in reducing cancer mortality and might even achieve such reduction at substantially larger net savings. Although vitamin D overdoses are unlikely in food fortification programs, implementation should be accompanied by a study monitoring the frequency of potentially occurring adverse effects by overdoses, such as hypercalcemia. Future studies on effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and fortification are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
Article
Distribution and Determinants of Vitamin D-Binding Protein, Total, “Non-Bioavailable”, Bioavailable, and Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Older Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113982 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
Background: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (“total 25 OH(D)”) is the most commonly used indicator of vitamin D status. However, 25(OH)D is mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) or albumin in blood, and it has been suggested that the remaining bioavailable [...] Read more.
Background: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (“total 25 OH(D)”) is the most commonly used indicator of vitamin D status. However, 25(OH)D is mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) or albumin in blood, and it has been suggested that the remaining bioavailable or free 25(OH)D may be more relevant for vitamin D associated health outcomes. We aimed to explore distributions and determinants of VDBP, total, bioavailable, complementary “non-bioavailable”, and free 25(OH)D in a large cohort of older adults in Germany. Methods: total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin concentrations were measured in blood samples of 5899 men and women aged 50–75 years and used to calculate bioavailable (and complementary “non-bioavailable”) and free 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations of potential determinants of the various vitamin D biomarkers. Results: mean concentrations of VDBP, total, non-bioavailable, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D were 323.6 µg/mL, 49.8 nmol/L, 43.4 nmol/L, 2.5 ng/mL, and 5.7 pg/mL, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for all markers, with peak values in spring for VDBP and in summer for total, non-bioavailable, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D. Consistent inverse associations were seen with age and body mass index for all markers, but divergent associations were seen with C-reactive protein. Strong variations by VDBP genotypes were seen for bioavailable and free 25(OH)D, and, in opposite direction for non-bioavailable 25(OH)D. Conclusion: commonalities and differences in determinants of various markers of vitamin D status were observed, which may help to enable a better understanding of their potential role for various vitamin D related health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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Review

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Review
Vitamin D as a Potential Player in Immunologic Control over Multiple Myeloma Cells: Implications for Adjuvant Therapies
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091802 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with multifactorial etiology. One of the underlying mechanisms is immune system dysregulation. Immunotherapy is being widely introduced into various MM treatment protocols. Nevertheless, little is known about boosting the immune system with supportive treatment. Although [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with multifactorial etiology. One of the underlying mechanisms is immune system dysregulation. Immunotherapy is being widely introduced into various MM treatment protocols. Nevertheless, little is known about boosting the immune system with supportive treatment. Although classical actions of vitamin D (VD) are very well established, their non-classical actions related to the modulation of the immune system in MM are still a subject of ongoing research. In this literature review, we intend to summarize research conducted on VD and MM, both in vitro and in vivo, with particular emphasis on immune system modulation, the induction of the differentiation of malignant MM cells, synergic activity with anti-MM drugs, and MM-associated peripheral neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
Review
Vitamins as Possible Cancer Biomarkers: Significance and Limitations
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113914 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The Western-style diet, which is common in developed countries and spreading into developing countries, is unbalanced in many respects. For instance, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western food [...] Read more.
The Western-style diet, which is common in developed countries and spreading into developing countries, is unbalanced in many respects. For instance, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western food (causing what is known as ‘hidden hunger’), whereas some others (such as phosphorus) are added beyond the daily allowance. This imbalance in micronutrients can induce cellular damage that can increase the risk of cancer. Interestingly, there is a large body of evidence suggesting a strong correlation between vitamin intake as well as vitamin blood concentrations with the occurrence of certain types of cancer. The direction of association between the concentration of a given vitamin and cancer risk is tumor specific. The present review summarized the literature regarding vitamins and cancer risk to assess whether these could be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers, thus confirming their potential as biomarkers. Despite many studies that highlight the importance of monitoring vitamin blood or tissue concentrations in cancer patients and demonstrate the link between vitamin intake and cancer risk, there is still an urgent need for more data to assess the effectiveness of vitamins as biomarkers in the context of cancer. Therefore, this review aims to provide a solid basis to support further studies on this promising topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Vitamin Supplementation and Dementia: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051033 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 3350
Abstract
Background: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive cognitive impairment that interferes with independent function in daily activities. Symptoms of dementia depend on its cause and vary greatly between individuals. There is extensive evidence supporting a relationship between diet and cognitive functions. This [...] Read more.
Background: Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive cognitive impairment that interferes with independent function in daily activities. Symptoms of dementia depend on its cause and vary greatly between individuals. There is extensive evidence supporting a relationship between diet and cognitive functions. This systematic review studies the efficacy of using vitamin supplements in the diet as a solution to nutritional deficiencies and the prevention of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Methods: An intensive search of different databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL) was performed. Articles that were published between 2011 and November 2021 were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy. This systematic review has been conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Results: Folic acid supplementation proved to have better outcomes on cognitive tests than their respective control groups. The combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 showed some discrepancies between studies. Thiamine as supplementation did not only prove to have a positive impact on cognitive performance when given alone but also when given in combination with folic acid. Regarding vitamin D supplementation, the results observed were not so encouraging. A concomitant supplementation of low-dose vitamin E and vitamin C was also not associated with an improvement of cognitive function. Conclusions: The findings of this systematic review suggest that supplementation of B Complex vitamins, especially folic acid, may have a positive effect on delaying and preventing the risk of cognitive decline. Ascorbic acid and a high dose of vitamin E, when given separately, also showed positive effects on cognitive performance, but there is not sufficient evidence to support their use. The results of vitamin D supplementation trials are not conclusive in assessing the potential benefits that vitamin D might have on cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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Systematic Review
Vitamin D Supplementation and Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124207 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Vitamin D has a promising role in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, and it has been found to be beneficial for patients’ mental health, which is reduced in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the [...] Read more.
Vitamin D has a promising role in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, and it has been found to be beneficial for patients’ mental health, which is reduced in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on mental health in MS patients. The systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020155779) and it was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA guidelines. The search procedure was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science databases and it included studies published up until September 2021. Six studies were included in the systematic review. The risk of bias was analyzed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Within the included studies, there were two studies randomized against placebo and four other prospective studies. The studies presented vitamin D interventions randomized against placebo or not randomized, while supplementation was applied for various durations—from 4 weeks to 12 months, or the studies compared patients who applied vitamin D supplementation and those who did not apply it and verified the effect of the supplementation after a number of years. The mental health outcomes that were assessed included quality of life, depression/depressive symptoms, and fatigue as an additional element. The majority of studies supported the positive influence of vitamin D on the mental health of MS patients, including the study characterized as having the highest quality (randomized against placebo with the highest NOS score). All the studies that assessed the quality of life indicated the positive influence of vitamin D while the studies that did not find a positive influence of vitamin D were conducted for depression/depressive symptoms. In spite of the fact that only a small number of studies have been conducted so far, and only two studies were randomized against a placebo, some conclusions may be formulated. The systematic review allowed us to conclude that there may be a positive effect of vitamin D supplementation in MS patients, which was stated in all of the studies analyzing quality of life, as well as in one study analyzing depressive symptoms. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is common in MS patients, and the potential positive influence of supplementation on the quality of life, supplementation should be applied at least in doses that cover the recommended intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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