(1) Background: Prolonged feeding with a high-fat diet (HFD) acts as a stressor by activating the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) stress axis, accompanied of hypertension by inducing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensinases enzymes are regulatory aminopeptidases of angiotensin metabolism, which together with the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), pyroglutamyl- and tyrosyl-aminopeptidase (pGluAP, TyrAP), participate in cognitive, stress, metabolic and cardiovascular functions. These functions appear to be modulated by the type of fat used in the diet. (2) Methods: To analyze a possible coordinated response of aminopeptidases, their activities were simultaneously determined in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis and adrenal gland of adult male rats fed diets enriched with monounsaturated (standard diet (S diet) supplemented with 20% virgin olive oil; VOO diet) or saturated fatty acids (diet S supplemented with 20% butter and 0.1% cholesterol; Bch diet). Aminopeptidase activities were measured by fluorimetry using 2-Naphthylamine as substrates. (3) Results: the hypothalamus did not show differences in any of the experimental diets. In the pituitary, the Bch diet stimulated the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by increasing certain angiotensinase activities (alanyl-, arginyl- and cystinyl-aminopeptidase) with respect to the S and VOO diets. DPP-IV activity was increased with the Bch diet, and TyrAP activity decrease with the VOO diet, having both a crucial role on stress and eating behavior. In the adrenal gland, both HFDs showed an increase in angiotensinase aspartyl-aminopeptidase. The interrelation of angiotensinases activities in the tissues were depending on the type of diet. In addition, correlations were shown between angiotensinases and aminopeptidases that regulate stress and eating behavior. (4) Conclusions: Taken together, these results support that the source of fat in the diet affects several peptidases activities in the HPA axis, which could be related to alterations in RAS, stress and feeding behavior.
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