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Article

The Effect of Elevated Protein Intake on DNA Damage in Older People: Comparative Secondary Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Research Platform Active Ageing, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
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Centre for Sport Science and University Sports, University of Vienna, 1150 Vienna, Austria
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Karl Landsteiner Institute for Remobilization and Functional Health/Institute for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaiser Franz Joseph Hospital, Social Medical Center South, 1100 Vienna, Austria
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Center for Health Sciences and Medicine, Danube University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria
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Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Smart Foods Innovation Centre of Excellence, AgResearch, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
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Department of Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Copenhagen University, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
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School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138632, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lynnette Ferguson
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103479
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 26 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Supporting an Active Lifestyle)
A high protein intake at old age is important for muscle protein synthesis, however, this could also trigger protein oxidation with the potential risk for DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased protein intake at recommended level or well above would affect DNA damage or change levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) in community-dwelling elderly subjects. These analyses were performed in two randomized intervention studies, in Austria and in New Zealand. In both randomized control trials, the mean protein intake was increased with whole foods, in the New Zealand study (n = 29 males, 74.2 ± 3.6 years) to 1.7 g/kg body weight/d (10 weeks intervention; p < 0.001)) in the Austrian study (n = 119 males and females, 72.9 ± 4.8 years) to 1.54 g/kg body weight/d (6 weeks intervention; p < 0.001)). In both studies, single and double strand breaks and as formamidopyrimidine—DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or whole blood. Further, resistance to H2O2 induced DNA damage, GSH, GSSG and CRP were measured. Increased dietary protein intake did not impact on DNA damage markers and GSH/GSSG levels. A seasonal-based time effect (p < 0.05), which led to a decrease in DNA damage and GSH was observed in the Austrian study. Therefore, increasing the protein intake to more than 20% of the total energy intake in community-dwelling seniors in Austria and New Zealand did not increase measures of DNA damage, change glutathione status or elevate plasma CRP. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein intake; elderly; DNA damage; comet assay; glutathione protein intake; elderly; DNA damage; comet assay; glutathione
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MDPI and ACS Style

Draxler, A.; Franzke, B.; Cortolezis, J.T.; Gillies, N.A.; Unterberger, S.; Aschauer, R.; Zöhrer, P.A.; Bragagna, L.; Kodnar, J.; Strasser, E.-M.; Neubauer, O.; Sharma, P.; Mitchell, S.M.; Zeng, N.; Ramzan, F.; D’Souza, R.F.; Knowles, S.O.; Roy, N.C.; Sjödin, A.M.; Mitchell, C.J.; Milan, A.M.; Wessner, B.; Cameron-Smith, D.; Wagner, K.-H. The Effect of Elevated Protein Intake on DNA Damage in Older People: Comparative Secondary Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3479. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103479

AMA Style

Draxler A, Franzke B, Cortolezis JT, Gillies NA, Unterberger S, Aschauer R, Zöhrer PA, Bragagna L, Kodnar J, Strasser E-M, Neubauer O, Sharma P, Mitchell SM, Zeng N, Ramzan F, D’Souza RF, Knowles SO, Roy NC, Sjödin AM, Mitchell CJ, Milan AM, Wessner B, Cameron-Smith D, Wagner K-H. The Effect of Elevated Protein Intake on DNA Damage in Older People: Comparative Secondary Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3479. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Draxler, Agnes, Bernhard Franzke, Johannes T. Cortolezis, Nicola A. Gillies, Sandra Unterberger, Rudolf Aschauer, Patrick A. Zöhrer, Laura Bragagna, Julia Kodnar, Eva-Maria Strasser, Oliver Neubauer, Pankaja Sharma, Sarah M. Mitchell, Nina Zeng, Farha Ramzan, Randall F. D’Souza, Scott O. Knowles, Nicole C. Roy, Anders M. Sjödin, Cameron J. Mitchell, Amber M. Milan, Barbara Wessner, David Cameron-Smith, and Karl-Heinz Wagner. 2021. "The Effect of Elevated Protein Intake on DNA Damage in Older People: Comparative Secondary Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Trials" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3479. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103479

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