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Review

Regulation of Gastrointestinal Immunity by Metabolites

by 1, 1,2,* and 3,4,5,*
1
Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Korea
2
Department of Animal Science, College of Natural Resources & Life Science, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Korea
3
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
4
Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
5
Institute of Green-Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do 25354, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010167
Received: 14 December 2020 / Revised: 1 January 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Function and Nutrient Supplementation)
The gastrointestinal tract contains multiple types of immune cells that maintain the balance between tolerance and activation at the first line of host defense facing non-self antigens, including dietary antigens, commensal bacteria, and sometimes unexpected pathogens. The maintenance of homeostasis at the gastrointestinal tract requires stringent regulation of immune responses against various environmental conditions. Dietary components can be converted into gut metabolites with unique functional activities through host as well as microbial enzymatic activities. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that gastrointestinal metabolites have significant impacts on the regulation of intestinal immunity and are further integrated into the immune response of distal mucosal tissue. Metabolites, especially those derived from the microbiota, regulate immune cell functions in various ways, including the recognition and activation of cell surface receptors, the control of gene expression by epigenetic regulation, and the integration of cellular metabolism. These mucosal immune regulations are key to understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review recent advancements in our understanding of the role of gut metabolites in the regulation of gastrointestinal immunity, highlighting the cellular and molecular regulatory mechanisms by macronutrient-derived metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: bile acids; dietary metabolites; intestinal homeostasis; metabolism; microbial metabolites; microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; tryptophan bile acids; dietary metabolites; intestinal homeostasis; metabolism; microbial metabolites; microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; tryptophan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, B.-H.; Kim, M.; Yun, C.-H. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Immunity by Metabolites. Nutrients 2021, 13, 167. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010167

AMA Style

Gu B-H, Kim M, Yun C-H. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Immunity by Metabolites. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):167. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010167

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Bon-Hee, Myunghoo Kim, and Cheol-Heui Yun. 2021. "Regulation of Gastrointestinal Immunity by Metabolites" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 167. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010167

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