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Open AccessArticle

A Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Predicts Better Sleep Quality in US Women from the American Heart Association Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network

1
Sleep Center of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
2
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
3
Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
4
Institute of Human Nutrition, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
5
Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092830
Received: 15 August 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Patterns and Sleep on Body Weight Management)
Consumption of a Mediterranean diet has been linked to better sleep health in older, European populations. However, whether this dietary pattern is predictive of sleep quality in US women, a group prone to poor sleep, is unknown. This prospective cohort study of 432 US women (20–76 y; 60% racial/ethnic minority) evaluated whether compliance with a Mediterranean diet at baseline predicted sleep quality at 1-y follow-up. Alternate Mediterranean (aMed) diet scores and habitual sleep quality were computed from the validated Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. Linear regression models evaluated prospective associations of the aMed diet pattern and its components with measures of sleep quality, after adjustment for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, and health insurance status. Higher baseline aMed scores were associated with lower PSQI scores (β = −0.30 ± 0.10, p < 0.01), indicative of better sleep quality, higher sleep efficiency (β = 1.20 ± 0.35, p < 0.001), and fewer sleep disturbances (β = −0.30 ± 0.12, p = 0.01) at 1-y. Fruit and vegetable consumption also predicted lower PSQI scores, higher sleep efficiency and fewer sleep disturbances (all p < 0.05). Higher legume intake predicted better sleep efficiency (β = 1.36 ± 0.55, p = 0.01). These findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern should be evaluated as a strategy to promote sleep quality in US women. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; alternate Mediterranean diet pattern; sleep quality; sleep efficiency; sleep disturbances; women’s health Mediterranean diet; alternate Mediterranean diet pattern; sleep quality; sleep efficiency; sleep disturbances; women’s health
MDPI and ACS Style

Zuraikat, F.M.; Makarem, N.; St-Onge, M.-P.; Xi, H.; Akkapeddi, A.; Aggarwal, B. A Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Predicts Better Sleep Quality in US Women from the American Heart Association Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2830.

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