Next Article in Journal
Exploring the Association between Urine Caffeine Metabolites and Urine Flow Rate: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Mothers’ Nutrition Knowledge Is Unlikely to Be Related to Adolescents’ Habitual Nutrient Intake Inadequacy in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Junior High School Students
Article

Platycodon grandiflorus Fermented Extracts Attenuate Endotoxin-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

1
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea
2
Department of Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Graduate School, Jinju 52727, Korea
3
Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 52725, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092802
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 11 September 2020 / Published: 13 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
Endotoxin-induced acute liver injury is mediated by an excessive inflammatory response, hepatocellular oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Traditional medicinal plants have been used to treat various disorders. Platycodon grandifloras (PG) has been shown to be beneficial in relieving cough and asthma and to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic activities. The pharmacological action of PG is mainly due to saponins, flavonoids, phenolic, and other compounds. However, raw PG exhibits some side effects at high doses. Here, we extracted raw PG with varying fermentation methods and examined its anti-inflammatory effect and associated signaling kinases in Raw264.7 cells. Then, we investigated the effect of fermented black PG (FBPG) on endotoxin-induced liver injury. Mice were administered FBPG orally at 1 h before the lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) injection and sacrificed after 5 h. Black PG (BPG) and FBPG showed a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and extracellular nitric oxide (NO); p-38 and ERK signaling was involved in reducing inducible NO synthase in Raw264.7 cells. Consistently, FBPG attenuates LPS/GalN-induced liver injury; plasma ALT and AST, hepatic necrosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and lipid peroxidation were all reduced. In conclusion, PG extracts, particularly FBPG, play anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic roles, alleviating endotoxin-induced acute liver injury. Processing raw PG into FBPG extract may be clinically useful by improving the pharmacologically active ingredients and reducing the required dosage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acute liver injury; anti-inflammation; antioxidant; fermentation; nitric oxide; Platycodon grandiflorus Acute liver injury; anti-inflammation; antioxidant; fermentation; nitric oxide; Platycodon grandiflorus
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.R.; Park, E.J.; Dusabimana, T.; Je, J.; Jeong, K.; Yun, S.P.; Kim, H.J.; Cho, K.M.; Kim, H.; Park, S.W. Platycodon grandiflorus Fermented Extracts Attenuate Endotoxin-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092802

AMA Style

Kim SR, Park EJ, Dusabimana T, Je J, Jeong K, Yun SP, Kim HJ, Cho KM, Kim H, Park SW. Platycodon grandiflorus Fermented Extracts Attenuate Endotoxin-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092802

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, So R., Eun J. Park, Theodomir Dusabimana, Jihyun Je, Kyuho Jeong, Seung P. Yun, Hye J. Kim, Kye M. Cho, Hwajin Kim, and Sang W. Park. 2020. "Platycodon grandiflorus Fermented Extracts Attenuate Endotoxin-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092802

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop