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Article

The Association between Dyslipidemia, Dietary Habits and Other Lifestyle Indicators among Non-Diabetic Attendees of Primary Health Care Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

1
Saudi Diabetes Research Group, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 3270, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Human Sciences and Design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 3270, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22252, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22252, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22252, Saudi Arabia
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King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz, University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS), Jeddah 22384, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
8
Public Health Promotion Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082441
Received: 12 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 August 2020 / Published: 13 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
Diet and other lifestyle habits have been reported to contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in various populations. Therefore, this study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and dietary and other lifestyle practices among Saudi adults. Data were collected from adults (≥20 years) not previously diagnosed with diabetes in a cross-sectional design. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics, as well as lifestyle and dietary habits were recorded using a predesigned questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were drawn to estimate the serum lipid profile. Out of 1385 people, 858 (62%) (491 men, 367 women) had dyslipidemia. After regression analysis to adjust for age, body mass index, and waist circumference, an intake of ≥5 cups/week of Turkish coffee, or carbonated drinks was associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia in men (OR (95% CI), 2.74 (1.53, 4.89) p = 0.001, and 1.53 (1.04, 2.26) p = 0.03 respectively), while the same intake of American coffee had a protective effect (0.53 (0.30, 0.92) p = 0.025). Sleep duration <6 h, and smoking were also associated with increased risk in men (1.573 (1.14, 2.18) p = 0.006, and 1.41 (1.00, 1.99) p = 0.043 respectively). In women, an increased intake of fresh vegetables was associated with increased risk (2.07 (1.09, 3.94) p = 0.026), which could be attributed to added salad dressing. Thus, there are sex differences in response to dietary and lifestyle practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: dyslipidemia; serum cholesterol; serum triglycerides; serum low density lipoprotein; serum high density lipoprotein; dietary intake; lifestyle dyslipidemia; serum cholesterol; serum triglycerides; serum low density lipoprotein; serum high density lipoprotein; dietary intake; lifestyle
MDPI and ACS Style

Enani, S.; Bahijri, S.; Malibary, M.; Jambi, H.; Eldakhakhny, B.; Al-Ahmadi, J.; Al Raddadi, R.; Ajabnoor, G.; Boraie, A.; Tuomilehto, J. The Association between Dyslipidemia, Dietary Habits and Other Lifestyle Indicators among Non-Diabetic Attendees of Primary Health Care Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082441

AMA Style

Enani S, Bahijri S, Malibary M, Jambi H, Eldakhakhny B, Al-Ahmadi J, Al Raddadi R, Ajabnoor G, Boraie A, Tuomilehto J. The Association between Dyslipidemia, Dietary Habits and Other Lifestyle Indicators among Non-Diabetic Attendees of Primary Health Care Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082441

Chicago/Turabian Style

Enani, Sumia, Suhad Bahijri, Manal Malibary, Hanan Jambi, Basmah Eldakhakhny, Jawaher Al-Ahmadi, Rajaa Al Raddadi, Ghada Ajabnoor, Anwar Boraie, and Jaakko Tuomilehto. 2020. "The Association between Dyslipidemia, Dietary Habits and Other Lifestyle Indicators among Non-Diabetic Attendees of Primary Health Care Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082441

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