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Effects on Gastroesophageal Reflux of Donkey Milk-Derived Human Milk Fortifier Versus Standard Fortifier in Preterm Newborns: Additional Data from the FortiLat Study
Open AccessArticle

Urinary Metabolomic Profile of Preterm Infants Receiving Human Milk with Either Bovine or Donkey Milk-Based Fortifiers

1
CREA Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing, 10135 Turin, Italy
2
Neonatal Unit, University of Turin, City of Health and Science of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy
3
Institute of the Science of Food Production—National Research Council, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
4
Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Cittadella Universitaria, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
5
Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD), 20126 Milan, Italy
6
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Neonatal Pathology and Neonatal Section, Azienda University Polyclinic, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
M.G. and C.P. equally contributed to this paper.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082247
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Donkey Milk and Infant Nutrition)
Fortification of human milk (HM) for preterm and very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants is a standard practice in most neonatal intensive care units. The optimal fortification strategy and the most suitable protein source for achieving better tolerance and growth rates for fortified infants are still being investigated. In a previous clinical trial, preterm and VLBW infants receiving supplementation of HM with experimental donkey milk-based fortifiers (D-HMF) showed decreased signs of feeding intolerance, including feeding interruptions, bilious gastric residuals and vomiting, with respect to infants receiving bovine milk-based fortifiers (B-HMF). In the present ancillary study, the urinary metabolome of infants fed B-HMF (n = 27) and D-HMF (n = 27) for 21 days was analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of the observation period. Results showed that most temporal changes in the metabolic responses were common in the two groups, providing indications of postnatal adaptation. The significantly higher excretion of galactose in D-HMF and of carnitine, choline, lysine and leucine in B-HMF at T1 were likely due to different formulations. In conclusion, isocaloric and isoproteic HM fortification may result in different metabolic patterns, as a consequence of the different quality of the nutrients provided by the fortifiers. View Full-Text
Keywords: adjustable fortification; bovine milk; donkey milk; 1H NMR; human milk; preterm; protein fortifiers; urinary metabolome adjustable fortification; bovine milk; donkey milk; 1H NMR; human milk; preterm; protein fortifiers; urinary metabolome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giribaldi, M.; Peila, C.; Coscia, A.; Cavallarin, L.; Antoniazzi, S.; Corbu, S.; Maiocco, G.; Sottemano, S.; Cresi, F.; Moro, G.E.; Bertino, E.; Fanos, V.; Cesare Marincola, F. Urinary Metabolomic Profile of Preterm Infants Receiving Human Milk with Either Bovine or Donkey Milk-Based Fortifiers. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2247. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082247

AMA Style

Giribaldi M, Peila C, Coscia A, Cavallarin L, Antoniazzi S, Corbu S, Maiocco G, Sottemano S, Cresi F, Moro GE, Bertino E, Fanos V, Cesare Marincola F. Urinary Metabolomic Profile of Preterm Infants Receiving Human Milk with Either Bovine or Donkey Milk-Based Fortifiers. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2247. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082247

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giribaldi, Marzia; Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Cavallarin, Laura; Antoniazzi, Sara; Corbu, Sara; Maiocco, Giulia; Sottemano, Stefano; Cresi, Francesco; Moro, Guido E.; Bertino, Enrico; Fanos, Vassilios; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia. 2020. "Urinary Metabolomic Profile of Preterm Infants Receiving Human Milk with Either Bovine or Donkey Milk-Based Fortifiers" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2247. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082247

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