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Open AccessArticle

Calorie Restriction Improves Physical Performance and Modulates the Antioxidant and Inflammatory Responses to Acute Exercise

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Laboratory of Physical Activity Science, Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain
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IDISBA. Fundació Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Illes Balears, Hospital Universitari Son Espases, 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain
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Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, 4070386 Concepcion, VIII – Bio Bio Region, Chile
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CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CB12/03/30038), 28220 Madrid, Spain
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Performance and Health Research Group for High Level Sports, High Performance Center of Barcelona, 08174 Sant Cugat, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, Alicante University,03690 Alicante, Spain
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Vinalopó Hospital, 03293 Elche, Spain
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Sport Research Center, University Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche, Spain
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Institute of Research, Development, and Innovation in Biotechnolgy of Elche (IDiBE) and Molecular and Cell Biology Institute (IBMC), University Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche, Spain
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Institute of Bioengineering and Department of Applied Biology-Nutrition, University Miguel Hernández. Alicante Institute for Health and Biomedical Research (ISABIAL Foundation), 03010 Alicante, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040930
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Mitochondrial Function)
Our aim was to characterize the effects of calorie restriction on the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of sportsmen and to evaluate the effects of calorie restriction and acute exercise on mitochondria energetics, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Twenty volunteer taekwondo practitioners undertook a calorie restriction of 30–40% on three alternate days a week for one month. Eleven volunteer sportsmen participated as controls. Both groups performed an energy efficiency test to evaluate physical performance, and samples were taken before and after exercise. The total weight of participants significantly decreased (5.9%) after calorie restriction, while the efficiency of work and the contributions of fat to obtain energy were enhanced by calorie restriction. No significant differences induced by acute exercise were observed in individual non-esterified fatty acid percentage or oxidative stress markers. Calorie restriction downregulated the basal gene expression of nitric oxide synthase, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, and repairing stress proteins, but it enhanced the expression of sirtuins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In conclusion, one month of calorie restriction decreases body weight and increases physical performance, enhancing energy efficiency, moderating the antioxidant and inflammatory basal gene expression, and influencing its response to acute exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: calorie restriction; exercise; oxidative stress; fatty acids; plasma calorie restriction; exercise; oxidative stress; fatty acids; plasma
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Capó, X.; Martorell, M.; Ferrer, M.D.; Sureda, A.; Pons, V.; Domingo, J.C.; Drobnic, F.; Martínez-Rodríguez, A.; Leyva-Vela, B.; Sarabia, J.M.; Herranz-López, M.; Roche, E.; Tur, J.A.; Pons, A. Calorie Restriction Improves Physical Performance and Modulates the Antioxidant and Inflammatory Responses to Acute Exercise. Nutrients 2020, 12, 930.

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