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Article

The Association between Salt Taste Perception, Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21 000 Split, Croatia
2
Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
3
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, University Hospital Center Split, Šoltanska 1, 21 000 Split, Croatia
4
Bioinformatics and Omics Data Science Platform, Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany
5
MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, University of Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK
6
Department of Public Health, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21 000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041164
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health)
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a widespread disorder and an important public health challenge. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between salt taste perception, Mediterranean diet and MetS. This cross-sectional study included 2798 subjects from the general population of Dalmatia, Croatia. MetS was determined using the Joint Interim Statement definition, and Mediterranean diet compliance was estimated using Mediterranean Diet Serving Score. Salt taste perception was assessed by threshold and suprathreshold testing (intensity and hedonic perception). Logistic regression was used in the analysis, adjusting for important confounding factors. As many as 44% of subjects had MetS, with elevated waist circumference as the most common component (77%). Higher salt taste sensitivity (lower threshold) was associated with several positive outcomes: lower odds of MetS (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.52–0.92), lower odds for elevated waist circumference (0.47; 0.27–0.82), elevated fasting glucose or diabetes (0.65; 0.45–0.94), and reduced HDL cholesterol (0.59; 0.42–0.84), compared to the higher threshold group. Subjects with lower salt taste threshold were more likely to consume more fruit, and less likely to adhere to olive oil and white meat guidelines, but without a difference in the overall Mediterranean diet compliance. Salt taste intensity perception was not associated with any of the investigated outcomes, while salty solution liking was associated with MetS (OR = 1.85, CI 95% 1.02–3.35). This study identified an association between salt taste perception and MetS and gave a new insight into taste perception, nutrition, and possible health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt taste perception; taste threshold; sodium chloride; metabolic syndrome; Mediterranean diet salt taste perception; taste threshold; sodium chloride; metabolic syndrome; Mediterranean diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veček, N.N.; Mucalo, L.; Dragun, R.; Miličević, T.; Pribisalić, A.; Patarčić, I.; Hayward, C.; Polašek, O.; Kolčić, I. The Association between Salt Taste Perception, Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041164

AMA Style

Veček NN, Mucalo L, Dragun R, Miličević T, Pribisalić A, Patarčić I, Hayward C, Polašek O, Kolčić I. The Association between Salt Taste Perception, Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Veček, Nikolina N., Lana Mucalo, Ružica Dragun, Tanja Miličević, Ajka Pribisalić, Inga Patarčić, Caroline Hayward, Ozren Polašek, and Ivana Kolčić. 2020. "The Association between Salt Taste Perception, Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041164

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