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Open AccessArticle

Trace Mineral Intake and Deficiencies in Older Adults Living in the Community and Institutions: A Systematic Review

1
Nutrition and Dietetics, Division of Food, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
2
School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041072
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forgotten Dietary Minerals and Health)
The global population is ageing with many older adults suffering from age-related malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies. Adequate nutrient intake is vital to enable older adults to continue living independently and delay their institutionalisation, as well as to prevent deterioration of health status in those living in institutions. This systematic review investigated the insufficiency of trace minerals in older adults living independently and in institutions. We examined 28 studies following a cross-sectional or cohort design, including 7203 older adults (≥60) living independently in 13 Western countries and 2036 living in institutions in seven Western countries. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-off point method was used to calculate percentage insufficiency for eight trace minerals using extracted mean and standard deviation values. Zinc deficiency was observed in 31% of community-based women and 49% of men. This was higher for those in institutional care (50% and 66%, respectively). Selenium intakes were similarly compromised with deficiency in 49% women and 37% men in the community and 44% women and 27% men in institutions. We additionally found significant proportions of both populations showing insufficiency for iron, iodine and copper. This paper identifies consistent nutritional insufficiency for selenium, zinc, iodine and copper in older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: Elderly; micronutrient; mineral; nutrition; iodine; zinc; selenium; iron; copper Elderly; micronutrient; mineral; nutrition; iodine; zinc; selenium; iron; copper
MDPI and ACS Style

Vural, Z.; Avery, A.; Kalogiros, D.I.; Coneyworth, L.J.; Welham, S.J.M. Trace Mineral Intake and Deficiencies in Older Adults Living in the Community and Institutions: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1072. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041072

AMA Style

Vural Z, Avery A, Kalogiros DI, Coneyworth LJ, Welham SJM. Trace Mineral Intake and Deficiencies in Older Adults Living in the Community and Institutions: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1072. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041072

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vural, Zeynep; Avery, Amanda; Kalogiros, Dimitris I.; Coneyworth, Lisa J.; Welham, Simon J.M. 2020. "Trace Mineral Intake and Deficiencies in Older Adults Living in the Community and Institutions: A Systematic Review" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1072. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041072

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