Next Article in Journal
Sources, Production, and Clinical Treatments of Milk Fat Globule Membrane for Infant Nutrition and Well-Being
Next Article in Special Issue
Dietary Selenium Intakes and Musculoskeletal Function in Very Old Adults: Analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study
Previous Article in Journal
Association of Dietary Acid Load with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Participants in Baseline Survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Trace Mineral Intake and Deficiencies in Older Adults Living in the Community and Institutions: A Systematic Review
Open AccessArticle

Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? A Systematic Review

Division of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Biosciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061606
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 24 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forgotten Dietary Minerals and Health)
Vegan and vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular. Dietary restrictions may increase the risk of iodine deficiency. This systematic review aims to assess iodine intake and status in adults following a vegan or vegetarian diet in industrialised countries. A systematic review and quality assessment were conducted in the period May 2019–April 2020 according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were identified in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and secondary sources. Fifteen articles met inclusion criteria. Participants included 127,094 adults (aged ≥ 18 years). Vegan groups presented the lowest median urinary iodine concentrations, followed by vegetarians, and did not achieve optimal status. The highest iodine intakes were recorded in female vegans (1448.0 ± 3879.0 µg day−1) and the lowest in vegetarians (15.6 ± 21.0 µg day−1). Omnivores recorded the greatest intake in 83% of studies. Seaweed contributed largely to diets of vegans with excessive iodine intake. Vegans appear to have increased risk of low iodine status, deficiency and inadequate intake compared with adults following less restrictive diets. Adults following vegan and vegetarian diets living in countries with a high prevalence of deficiency may be more vulnerable. Therefore, further monitoring of iodine status in industrialised countries and research into improving the iodine intake and status of adults following vegan and vegetarian diets is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine status; iodine intake; iodine deficiency; vegan; vegetarian iodine status; iodine intake; iodine deficiency; vegan; vegetarian
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Eveleigh, E.R.; Coneyworth, L.J.; Avery, A.; Welham, S.J.M. Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1606.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop