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The Efficacy of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Protectors against Calcium Oxalate Renal Stone Formation: A Review

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
2
University Stone Centre, Department of Urology, University Hospital of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041069
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 12 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Urinary Stone Disease)
In the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated by virtue of their metabolic links with arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin PGE2. Studies have also shown that n-3 PUFAs, particularly those in fish oil—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—can serve as competitive substrates for AA in the n-6 series and can be incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids in the latter’s place, thereby reducing urinary excretions of calcium and oxalate. The present review interrogates several different types of study which address the question of the potential roles played by dietary PUFAs in modulating stone formation. Included among these are human trials that have investigated the effects of dietary PUFA interventions. We identified 16 such trials. Besides fish oil (EPA+DHA), other supplements such as evening primrose oil containing n-6 FAs linoleic acid (LA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) were tested. Urinary excretion of calcium or oxalate or both decreased in most trials. However, these decreases were most prominent in the fish oil trials. We recommend the administration of fish oil containing EPA and DHA in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal stones; recurrence prevention of calcium kidney stones; urolithiasis; dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids; fish oil supplementation; eicosapentaenoic acid; arachidonic acid; treatment of hypercalciuria; treatment of hyperoxaluria renal stones; recurrence prevention of calcium kidney stones; urolithiasis; dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids; fish oil supplementation; eicosapentaenoic acid; arachidonic acid; treatment of hypercalciuria; treatment of hyperoxaluria
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Rodgers, A.L.; Siener, R. The Efficacy of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Protectors against Calcium Oxalate Renal Stone Formation: A Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1069.

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