Bariatric surgery (BS) is one of the most common and efficient surgical procedures for sustained weight loss but is associated with long-term complications such as nutritional deficiencies, biliary lithiasis, disturbances in bone and mineral metabolism and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, attributed to urinary metabolic changes resultant from low urinary volume, hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria. The underlying mechanisms responsible for hyperoxaluria, the most common among all metabolic disturbances, may comprise increased intestinal oxalate absorption consequent to decreased calcium intake or increased dietary oxalate, changes in the gut microbiota, fat malabsorption and altered intestinal oxalate transport. In the current review, the authors present a mechanistic overview of changes found after BS and propose dietary recommendations to prevent the risk of urinary stone formation, focusing on the role of dietary oxalate, calcium, citrate, potassium, protein, fat, sodium, probiotics, vitamins D, C, B6 and the consumption of fluids.
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