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Article

Neuroprotective Potential of Allium sativum against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity: Impact on Short-Term Memory, Gliosis, and Oxidative Stress

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Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebeen Elkom 32511, Egypt
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Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebeen Elkom 32511, Egypt
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Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary, Menoufia University, Shebeen Elkom 32511, Egypt
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Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041028
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Alliaceae)
This study evaluated the neuroprotective potential of Allium sativum against monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced neurotoxicity with respect to its impact on short-term memory in rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four groups. The control group received distilled water. The second group was administered Allium sativum powder (200 mg/kg of body weight) orally for 7 successive days, then was left without treatment until the 30th day. The third group was injected intraperitoneally with MSG (4 g/kg of body weight) for 7 successive days, then left without treatment until the 30th day. The fourth group was injected with MSG in the same manner as the third group and was treated with Allium sativum powder in the same manner as the second group, simultaneously. Phytochemical analysis of Allium sativum powder identified the presence of diallyl disulphide, carvone, diallyl trisulfide, and allyl tetrasulfide. MSG-induced excitotoxicity and cognitive deficit were represented by decreased distance moved and taking a long time to start moving from the center in the open field, as well as lack of curiosity in investigating the novel object and novel arm. Moreover, MSG altered hippocampus structure and increased MDA concentration and protein expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calretinin, and caspase-3, whereas it decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and protein expression of Ki-67 in brain tissue. However, Allium sativum powder prevented MSG-induced neurotoxicity and improved short-term memory through enhancing antioxidant activity and reducing lipid peroxidation. In addition, it decreased protein expression of GFAP, calretinin, and caspase-3 and increased protein expression of Ki-67 in brain tissues and retained brain tissue architecture. This study indicated that Allium sativum powder ameliorated MSG-induced neurotoxicity through preventing oxidative stress-induced gliosis and apoptosis of brain tissue in rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: MSG; excitotoxicity; Allium sativum; gliosis; cognitive; oxidative stress MSG; excitotoxicity; Allium sativum; gliosis; cognitive; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hazzaa, S.M.; Abdelaziz, S.A.M.; Abd Eldaim, M.A.; Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Elgarawany, G.E. Neuroprotective Potential of Allium sativum against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity: Impact on Short-Term Memory, Gliosis, and Oxidative Stress. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1028. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041028

AMA Style

Hazzaa SM, Abdelaziz SAM, Abd Eldaim MA, Abdel-Daim MM, Elgarawany GE. Neuroprotective Potential of Allium sativum against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity: Impact on Short-Term Memory, Gliosis, and Oxidative Stress. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1028. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hazzaa, Suzan M., Seham Ahmed Mohamed Abdelaziz, Mabrouk A. Abd Eldaim, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, and Ghada E. Elgarawany. 2020. "Neuroprotective Potential of Allium sativum against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity: Impact on Short-Term Memory, Gliosis, and Oxidative Stress" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1028. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041028

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