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Review

Social and Economic Factors and Malnutrition or the Risk of Malnutrition in the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

1
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Functional Nutrition, Oxidation, and Cardiovascular Diseases Group (NFOC-Salut), 43201 Reus, Spain
2
Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Unitat de Nutrició i Salut, Eurecat, 43204 Reus, Spain
3
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Department of Internal Medicine, 43204 Reus, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030737
Received: 20 February 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 8 March 2020 / Published: 11 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Healthy Ageing)
Malnutrition in the elderly could be tackled by addressing socioeconomic factors. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the malnutrition or malnutrition risk (MR) in the elderly. The PubMed and SCOPUS databases were searched for observational studies that included assessment of malnutrition or/and MR and socioeconomic variables (educational level, living alone, marital status, income and occupational level, feeling of loneliness, place of residence, and food expenditure) in ≥60-year-old subjects, published in English among 2000–2018 (PROSPERO: CRD42019137097). The systematic review included 40 observational studies (34 cross-sectional and 4 cohort studies) and 16 cross-sectional studies in the meta-analysis (34,703 individuals) of malnutrition and MR in relation to low educational level (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.33–1.64; p < 0.001), living alone (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.73–2.14; p < 0.001), being single, widowed, or divorced (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.57–1.90; p < 0.001), and low income level (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 2.35–3.08; p < 0.001), and considering these four socioeconomic factors, malnutrition and MR is associated with them (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.73–1.93; p < 0.001). Malnutrition and MR could be reduced by increasing economic level, supporting people living alone or being single, widowed, and divorced, and improving lifelong learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: malnutrition; nutritional status; elderly; socioeconomic factors malnutrition; nutritional status; elderly; socioeconomic factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Besora-Moreno, M.; Llauradó, E.; Tarro, L.; Solà, R. Social and Economic Factors and Malnutrition or the Risk of Malnutrition in the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2020, 12, 737. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030737

AMA Style

Besora-Moreno M, Llauradó E, Tarro L, Solà R. Social and Economic Factors and Malnutrition or the Risk of Malnutrition in the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):737. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030737

Chicago/Turabian Style

Besora-Moreno, Maria, Elisabet Llauradó, Lucia Tarro, and Rosa Solà. 2020. "Social and Economic Factors and Malnutrition or the Risk of Malnutrition in the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 737. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030737

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