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Beyond Heat Stress: Intestinal Integrity Disruption and Mechanism-Based Intervention Strategies

1
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Danone Nutricia Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Food & Biobased Research, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030734
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 11 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
The current climate changes have increased the prevalence and intensity of heat stress (HS) conditions. One of the initial consequences of HS is the impairment of the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity due to hyperthermia and hypoxia following blood repartition, which often results in a leaky gut followed by penetration and transfer of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and pathogenic bacteria. Under extreme conditions, HS may culminate in the onset of “heat stroke”, a potential lethal condition if remaining untreated. HS-induced alterations of the gastrointestinal epithelium, which is associated with a leaky gut, are due to cellular oxidative stress, disruption of intestinal integrity, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This review summarizes the possible resilience mechanisms based on in vitro and in vivo data and the potential interventions with a group of nutritional supplements, which may increase the resilience to HS-induced intestinal integrity disruption and maintain intestinal homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stress (HS); intestinal integrity; nutritional supplements; resilience pathways; reactive oxygen species (ROS) heat stress (HS); intestinal integrity; nutritional supplements; resilience pathways; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lian, P.; Braber, S.; Garssen, J.; Wichers, H.J.; Folkerts, G.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Varasteh, S. Beyond Heat Stress: Intestinal Integrity Disruption and Mechanism-Based Intervention Strategies. Nutrients 2020, 12, 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030734

AMA Style

Lian P, Braber S, Garssen J, Wichers HJ, Folkerts G, Fink-Gremmels J, Varasteh S. Beyond Heat Stress: Intestinal Integrity Disruption and Mechanism-Based Intervention Strategies. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):734. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030734

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lian, Puqiao; Braber, Saskia; Garssen, Johan; Wichers, Harry J.; Folkerts, Gert; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Varasteh, Soheil. 2020. "Beyond Heat Stress: Intestinal Integrity Disruption and Mechanism-Based Intervention Strategies" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030734

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