Next Article in Journal
Effects of an Alkalizing or Acidizing Diet on High-Intensity Exercise Performance under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions in Physically Active Adults: A Randomized, Crossover Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
Fluoxetine Mimics the Anorectic Action of Estrogen and Its Regulation of Circadian Feeding in Ovariectomized Female Rats
Previous Article in Journal
A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Medium-Term Effects of Oat Fibers on Human Health: The Beta-Glucan Effects on Lipid Profile, Glycemia and inTestinal Health (BELT) Study
Open AccessArticle

Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormones in Human Milk before and after Pasteurization or Refrigeration

1
Departments of Neonatology and Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Pécs Medical School, 7624 Pécs, Hungary
2
MTA-PTE Human Reproduction Scientific Research Group, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Hungary
3
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030687
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Diet and Hormones)
Our aims were to investigate the presence of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in preterm and donor milk, and to examine the effects of Holder pasteurization and refrigeration on the levels of these hormones. We measured follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in milk samples from mothers who delivered prematurely (n = 27) and in samples of mothers who delivered at term and donated milk to the Mother’s Milk Bank of Iowa (n = 30). The gonadotropins and TSH were present in similar amounts within human milk produced for preterm and term infants. FSH increased 21% after refrigeration (p < 0.05), while LH declined by 39% (p < 0.05). Holder pasteurization decreased LH by 24% (p < 0.05) and increased TSH by 17% (p < 0.05). Holder pasteurization followed by refrigeration resulted in a 21% increase in FSH and a 41% decrease in LH (both p < 0.05), resulting in more than a 3-fold increase in donor milk FSH:LH ratios (p < 0.05 versus fresh donor milk). Despite structural similarities, the gonadotropins are differentially impacted by Holder pasteurization and refrigeration, and this results in marked alterations in the relative amount of FSH and LH that may be administered to preterm infants, potentially swinging hormonal balance towards ovarian hyperstimulation in females and hypogonadism in males. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; diet; preterm milk; donor milk; Holder pasteurization; storage breast milk; diet; preterm milk; donor milk; Holder pasteurization; storage
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vass, R.A.; Roghair, R.D.; Bell, E.F.; Colaizy, T.T.; Johnson, K.J.; Schmelzel, M.L.; Walker, J.R.; Ertl, T. Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormones in Human Milk before and after Pasteurization or Refrigeration. Nutrients 2020, 12, 687. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030687

AMA Style

Vass RA, Roghair RD, Bell EF, Colaizy TT, Johnson KJ, Schmelzel ML, Walker JR, Ertl T. Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormones in Human Milk before and after Pasteurization or Refrigeration. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):687. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030687

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vass, Réka A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Bell, Edward F.; Colaizy, Tarah T.; Johnson, Karen J.; Schmelzel, Mendi L.; Walker, Jacky R.; Ertl, Tibor. 2020. "Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormones in Human Milk before and after Pasteurization or Refrigeration" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 687. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030687

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop